Every gardener dreams of having as much as possible good types of trees on his plot and getting a stable harvest with the least amount of land. For this purpose, a spring inoculation of cherries is carried out on existing or newly planted young plants.
The principle of grafting cherries of other varieties or adjacent stone fruit plants, such as cherry or plum, is to incubate varieties that are exposed to frosts and poorly oriented to the climatic conditions of a given area in a regional winter hardy tree. Thus, grafting takes the properties of the main tree, due to which the frost resistance of the variety increases, as well as resistance to local growth conditions. The most popular is the inoculation of cherries for cherries in the spring, as it itself does not tolerate frosty winters.
For vaccination, both young and adult plants can be used to update them. Stone cherry is used as a scion and is suitable for other stone fruits, for example, cherries, plums or more cultivars of cherries. For this, the following methods are used:
- Eyes behind the bark, pressed against the trunk.
- In the side cut.
- In the cleavage.
- Improved copulating.
Preparing the rootstock
The stock, which will be used later, should be no more than 1 cm thick. Shoots for this purpose are harvested immediately before the grafting process. To do this, healthy and already started to bear fruit trees. The cut of the branch is taken with the formed kidneys, about 40 centimeters in length.
If the leaves are already bloomed in the rootstock to be used as an inoculation, they are removed along with the petioles, and they also get rid of the grassy top.
In spring, the cherry is inoculated with a cuttings in April, when the sap flow begins in the trees. At this time, the bark from the tree is easily detached, and therefore, all methods are used that involve the removal of the bark from the main trunk and the inoculation of the graft to it. These processes must be completed before the buds are dissolved, otherwise the rootstocks do not take root well.
Shoots that are intended for inoculation are harvested after the leaf fall and stored until dark cool areas, having dug them into coarse-grained sand, sawdust or peat, which is regularly moistened. In this case, the temperature of the content should not exceed three degrees of heat.
Also, shoots can be harvested in the spring, for this in the second half of March, before the buds swell, the necessary stock is stored in the refrigerator, at a level where the temperature is from 1 to 3 degrees. To do this, place them in a layer of cellophane, pre-wrapped with a damp cloth or newspaper. Periodically moisten the matter into which they are wrapped, and do not allow drying.
The subtleties of the process
In spring, the cherry is inoculated with an acute knife that can make a cut without damaging or loosening the trunk tissue. It is important to remember that open sections are oxidized fairly quickly, so it is necessary to quickly perform the entire operation, which ensures better rooting of the rootstock.
The site of the scion must be wrapped with a polyethylene film, and for this purpose it is possible to use insulating tape. Open sections of the ends should be covered with a layer of garden vara, which will protect them from drying out, and hence from withering away. The best option is to cover the whole of this construction with an additional layer of film or paper from the weathering.
One of the types of popular vaccinations is spring, produced with the help of a handle. The rootstocks for this method are harvested in the autumn or in the first month of winter. Take cuttings with a length of at least 50 centimeters. To this end, use branches older than a year. They can be stored, in addition to the above methods, also by snow. This method consists in the fact that cuttings are bound in dense bundles, wrapped in cellophane bags, and when snow falls, they are covered with a layer of at least half a meter. Such snowdrifts are covered with sawdust or peat. They place these storages on the north side of the house, so that the snow does not melt for a long time. The optimal air temperature is at least 2, but not more than 10 degrees below zero.
Inoculation of cherry cherry in spring
For grafting, the most suitable are trees grown from bones, called "wild". They are the most adapted to local climatic conditions and sufficiently frost-resistant to transfer these qualities to varieties that will be grafted.
Among stone fruits, most crops are well established with each other, but it is common to divide them into two groups:
- Plum flowers. These include: thorn, plum, apricot, peach, almond felt cherry.
- Cherry. This group includes cherry, cherry and their hybrids.
Inside these groups, you can not be afraid to get vaccinated from one class to another. It can be a cherry inoculum on a cherry in the spring, a photo of this example can be seen below.
The most popular among the cross groups is the inoculation of plums for cherries in the spring.
It is very important to observe certain deadlines reserved for carrying out such work as the inoculation of fruit trees. On this depends the success of the whole event. The time of onset of sap flow usually falls on the beginning-middle of April, depending on how early the spring is, and when buds start to form and swell. At the same time, the average daytime temperature is still low. However, depending on the weather, the vaccination period can be extended until May or June. The most important criterion in this case is how far the buds have budded, since they should only be in a dormant state. At the same tree, which is planned to be vaccinated, can be either asleep or in a bloated state. Thus, we determine the timing of the inoculation of cherries from the beginning of April to the end of May.
One plant can plant several different varieties. For these purposes, methods are also used to inoculate pollinators, which increase the yield of the main variety.
How to inoculate a cherry in the spring
Vaccination is performed at a distance of 20-25 cm from the main trunk. This distance is optimal, because if you vaccinate directly on the main trunk, then branching will interfere, you will have to remove most shoots. And if the vaccination is higher, then when pruning trees, you can accidentally remove it.
The most beneficial is the inoculation of cherries in spring on young seedlings older than two years, which do not fit in their varietal indices. To make such manipulations, the best option is to select a branch that is wider or equal in diameter to the cuttings.
In the event that the diameters of the cuttings and the main branches coincide, inoculation is carried out by means of improved copulation. To do this, on the main trunk and privoe do the same oblique slices, which should ideally coincide with each other, and also it is necessary to provide for the presence of a tongue. After they have been adjusted to fit as closely as possible to each other, they are connected and tightly tied.
If the width of the main trunk is larger than the diameter of the cuttings, then the same actions are performed, but in the main trunk the cuts are usually made along the sideline. After adjusting the cuts of the cuttings with grooves on the main trunk, they are tightly connected to each other and they make a harness.
The tie should be as tight as it will be. The better the stalk is fixed, the greater the chance of its survival. All parts of the cuts made, which are open, are coated with a garden sauce. For the first time, they are tied with paper or cellophane, so that the sections are not fouled and well healed.
After the vaccination is well established on the main plant, it is released from the cellophane hood and allowed to grow freely in the air, but for some time it is necessary to ensure a good fixation to the trunk, as it is not strong enough and can be damaged by strong winds or in awkward movement. For this, it is necessary to impose a semblance of a tire on the joint site and to roll it well with the main trunk and with the graft.
It is also necessary to take care of the removal of the young growth from the mother tree, which will take away the vitality and nutrition of the vaccine.
Additional top dressing
When the cherry inoculum is produced in spring, the timing and methods of its execution depend directly on the steady weather and the stage of tree breaking. However, this is not all that determines the success of the final result. For a better survival and development of young vaccinations, trees must be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. They will significantly increase growth. In autumn it is necessary to feed them with potassium or phosphorus fertilizers. They will provide better frost resistance and protect the vaccines from death.
With properly conducted manipulations, in the second or third year, the young grafts will start harvesting, which will significantly shorten the waiting time. Planted in the ground, the plants do not wait for harvesting for more than 5 years. Also, this will save a lot of space on the land, since one tree can receive up to five or six varieties without occupying large areas for their disembarkation.