A good harvest of crops can only be achieved by creating comfortable conditions for growing plants. Many gardeners for this are growing plantations in greenhouses and greenhouses. A plant grown in such conditions is affected by many factors. Of no little importance is the material covered by the greenhouse. Therefore, many gardeners and worried about the question: "What to cover the greenhouse?" This is exactly what will be discussed later.
Types of coatings for greenhouses
How to cover a greenhouse for growing crops in artificial conditions? The assortment of covering material differs in variety. The most popular shelters are:
Lately, spunbond has proven itself well. This is nonwoven material. It is durable, reliable and multifunctional. Good transmits light and oxygen. Plants under such cover feel comfortable.
Than to cover a greenhouse - a film, glass, polycarbonate or other material, each truck farmer should solve itself, leaning against a number of certain conditions.
Glazing of the greenhouse
Glass for hiding a greenhouse has been used since ancient times. This is completely justified, since it has many positive properties:
- High light throughput, which is 94%.
- Long service life.
- Resistance to temperature changes.
- High thermal insulation qualities.
- Resistance to chemical reagents, abrasives and detergents.
But in addition to positive qualities, glass has a number of drawbacks, because of which many truck farmers refused to use it. Among them:
- The need to create a strong framework, for a fragile base can not withstand the material.
- Significant material investment.
- Friability of the material.
- Penetration of ultraviolet rays.
The very procedure of coating a glasshouse with glass requires certain knowledge and is quite complex. Not every vegetable gardener can glaze the greenhouse on his own, without resorting to the help of specialists.
For glazing of greenhouses, you should choose an absolutely smooth, clear glass. Its thickness should be at least 4 mm. The translucency directly depends on the width of the frames: the more they are, the better conditions are created for plants. When choosing the width of the frame, one should also take into account the fragility of the glass. On a large glazing surface it will be much higher. If the glass is damaged, repair of the greenhouse will cost more than using other materials.
Application of the film
What to cover the greenhouse, so that the plants feel most comfortable? One of the most common and cheap materials is a film. The greenhouses covered by it turn out to be practical. However, this coating has a short service life.
Often condensate accumulates on the inside of the film, which creates favorable conditions for the spread of various diseases, bacteria and dirt that are unsafe for crops. Despite this, the film well passes and diffuses light, but only so long as its structure is not broken.
Despite the obvious disadvantages of covering material, truck farmers do not stop using it. Three types of films are popular:
- Polyvinyl chloride;
The first is the cheapest, but very short-lived. It's enough for the season. The second is more expensive. With proper care will last up to 7 years. The life of the third film is three years. On how to cover the greenhouse with a film of their own hands, will be written further in the article.
Shelter of a hothouse with a film
Before you cover the greenhouse with a film, you need to calculate the amount of material. To do this, measure the total length of the frame structure and divide by the width of the film. Ten per cent along the entire perimeter is added to the material overlap and its fastening. The number of canvases is multiplied by their length - and the required length of the material is obtained. Do not forget about the ends, the size of which must be added to the calculated figure.
How correctly to cover a hothouse with a film? It is not difficult to do this if you follow certain rules:
- The material should not be cut beforehand. First, you need to roll the roll through the greenhouse, stretch the film and add about 25 cm on each side to fix the cover. Only after this canvas can be cut. So it is necessary to cut all the canvases.
- The film is laid on a flat surface and glued together with transparent tape on both sides.
- Details for the ends of the building, doors and windows are cut with allowances for fastening.
- To avoid sagging and strong tension of the covering material, it is mounted in moderately warm weather. On the street there should be no strong wind.
- For a more prolonged use of the canvas, the greenhouse is sheltered shortly before the plants are planted in it.
From the cut out parts make the frame of the greenhouse. Wear it on the construction and fix it at the base. The reinforced film is pressed down with a bar, and the top is covered with earth. Taped with an adhesive tape, the polyethylene film is stretched onto the frame. The edges of the canvas are stretched, they are laid on top of a long rail and fixed with nails. After the main part of the structure is covered, the ends, the door and the windows are mounted. All joints are connected with scotch tape. If the greenhouse is made of plastic and metal tubes, then the material to it is fixed with clips of the appropriate diameter.
Application of polycarbonate
Polycarbonate is the most popular material for greenhouses. It is a solid plastic. It is stronger than glass, but weighs less. Happens monolithic and cellular. The latter is considered the most suitable for greenhouses. Characterized by high thermal insulation and light transmission capacity. Has a long service life.
The advantages of cellular carbonate include:
- High-grade illumination of greenhouses;
- Low weight;
- Long service life (up to 20 years).
Thanks to the positive qualities of the material, many gardeners invariably have a question about how to cover the greenhouse with polycarbonate with their own hands.
Experts advise not to hurry and carefully read all the features of the material. Pay attention to the thickness value. I advise you to take sheets with a thickness of 5 to 8 mm.
Before using cellular carbonate, attention should be paid to the fact that, when heated, it lengthens. A six-meter sheet, when heated, increases by 5 cm in length and by 2 cm in width. Therefore, the greenhouse should be sheltered at a temperature of at least +10 ° C, while the polycarbonate blocks are mounted overlap.
How to properly cover the greenhouse with polycarbonate?
Standard polycarbonate cloths have a width of 2.1 m and a length of 6 or 12 m. All dimensions of the frame gables are transferred to the material, and then all the details are neatly cut out by an electric jigsaw. Sometimes the question arises, which side polycarbonate cover the greenhouse. The sheets are installed in the installation only the right side, outward, vertically. Otherwise, the capacity of light will drop, which will subsequently affect the cultivation of crops.
After all the details are cut out, the greenhouse is assembled, which is divided into:
When point-mounted, the material is attached directly to the frame by using a thermo-washer. Drilled holes are drilled in the fixing points. Polycarbonate is applied to the frame and fixed with screws. At the end of the installation, all ends are closed with an end profile using a thermal tape.
With the profile method, sheets are inserted into the special profiles for the carbonate and stretched out. Drill holes for the screws, which fix the covering material. The rafters are glued with thermal tape.
One of the popular materials for greenhouses is spunbond. This is a non-woven fabric consisting of polymer extruded fibers. It is ideal for hiding greenhouses. Passes light and provides free air access, uniform distribution of both moisture and heat. Helps maintain a stable microclimate. It is characterized by optimal thermal insulation properties. Practical and durable. Resistant to frost, chemicals and the effects of bacteria and mold. Safe for plants. Can be used year-round.
This material is of three types:
- For open ground;
- For sheltering greenhouses or greenhouses;
- For mulching the soil.
The first two species have white color, the latter - black. Spunbond for sheltering greenhouses has a density of 30-60 g / square. M.
Work with aerofoil
It has already been said a lot about how to cover the greenhouse with their own hands. The installation of aerofiber (spunbond) is similar in technology to the hiding of the greenhouse with a polyethylene film. In addition, there are some tricks in applying nonwoven material:
- Sewing in the center of the fabric a strip of fabric that has ropes to bind the covering material to the frame of the greenhouse. This greatly facilitates the installation of spunbond.
- To make the cloth denser, you should enclose it with thin wooden slats from the outside.
- The material can be combined with a PET film. Some gardeners make only a roof of aerofoil, others construct inserts of a certain width and a given distance.
- If the greenhouse is of the arched type, then it is not necessary to remove aerofoil for the winter.
- Spunbond, unsuitable for hiding a greenhouse, can be used to protect plants in the winter season.
Nonwoven material will provide plants with proper ventilation and watering, and if used for mulching, there will be no need for weeding plants. More spunbond helps maintain a constant temperature in the hotbed and regulates the atmospheric humidity. Accelerates the ripening of fruits in the greenhouse and makes the vegetative period of the crops longer.
In addition to the above materials for the greenhouse, truck farmers use other canvases that have certain properties:
- Acrylic (plexiglass). It has a special strength. It is most preferable for the northern regions. Has a high cost.
- Polyvinyl chloride. It is a corrugated sheet. They are transparent and therefore pass light well. Prevents the penetration of ultraviolet rays.
- Fiberglass. Produced from special polyester resins. It is reinforced. Has a low thermal conductivity, which keeps the day heat throughout the night.
Each of the above shelters has its pros and cons. What is better to choose is for the owner of the greenhouse to decide.
Tips for choosing a material
Before buying the covering material, you should take into account all the nuances of the canvas, ask what material is better for certain conditions. It is necessary to consider the following factors:
- Area of shelter;
- Climatic conditions of the area in which the greenhouse will be located;
- Period of operation of the structure;
- Culture that will be grown in the structure;
- The amount of money allocated for the arrangement of the greenhouse;
- Purpose of the facility;
- Complexity of installation.
When choosing a greenhouse gardener can rely on other factors that are important for him.
The better to cover the greenhouse? If it will serve year-round, then it should be sheltered thoroughly. It is suitable for glass, polycarbonate or acrylic. For the growing of seedlings, film or spunbond will be very useful.
It is important not only to choose the right material for hiding a greenhouse, but also to look after it properly. Time to carry out minor repairs. If the greenhouse is not planned to be used, then the covering material should be removed. Keep it in a dry and ventilated room.
It should always be remembered that the right choice of concealed material will ensure proper conditions for growth and fruiting of crops, will in every way contribute to the collection of a rich crop that will pay off with all the investments.