Weed herbs bring a lot of trouble to farmers and truck farmers. But this leads in its vitality, it is extremely difficult to get rid of. It grows everywhere where cereal plants are sown. It is adjacent to spring wheat, barley, oats and other crops. The name of the weed is oats. Read more about this plant in the article.
Oatsug (another name - oats are empty) is an annual plant growing to 80-120 cm in height. Its stems are erect, bare, the root system is ragged, developed very well.
The leaves are flat, up to 30 cm long, on the stem are arranged linearly. The shape is straight or slightly twisted counter-clockwise. They have interesting ciliated edges, decorated with sparse and long hairs (cilia) in one row.
Inflorescence is a long (up to 30 cm) sprawling panicle. The oats plant has large spikelets with 2 or 3 flowers, blooms from the beginning of June to the end of August. One copy gives up to 500-600 seeds - spindle-shaped granules. 1000 fruits oatsug weighs 15-25 grams. They maintain their germination on average 3-4 years, and under favorable conditions up to 7-9 years.
The range of its distribution is extremely wide. Oatmeal, like many other weeds, perfectly adapts to unfavorable climatic conditions. He equally well tolerates heat and frosts, "friends" with insect pests that do not touch him, perfectly competes with other plants, both cultural and weed, most often winning in the battle for territory.
Common oats are found everywhere in Eurasia. For example, in Kazakhstan, the area of crops contaminated with empty oats is about 4-4.5 million hectares! Also growing in every corner of North America, is often found in North Africa. Today, oats grow deeper south, adapting to new conditions and conquering the southern hemisphere of the planet.
Which conditions are suitable for oats growth
The grains germinate already at a soil temperature of 3-4 ° C, but the most suitable temperature for germination is 15-18 ° C. The most viable shoots are obtained from grains, which are at a depth of 10-15 cm, but they can also grow from a depth of 20-25 cm, even 30-40 cm with sufficient moisture and clear warm weather.
Their vitality is preserved under any conditions up to three years, and under favorable conditions - even up to nine years.
According to the folk calendar, mass shoots of wild oats will appear in a few days after the buds are blooming on the birches.
Ovsg ordinary - unpretentious plant. It gaily gleams, turns green and blooms even in the hottest summer. Does not die with prolonged drought. Clogging cultural crops, remains unscathed after the invasion of insect pests or epidemics. Refers to the category of hard-to-root plants. It is very difficult to defeat him.
An interesting fact about the survival of oats
If you take the fruit of wild oats, drip a couple of drops of water on it, then the granule miraculously "comes alive"! It begins to move - at first slowly, then faster and faster revolving around its axis. This mechanism allows the grains themselves to dig themselves into the soil at the required depth. It is enough for a small rain, so that the falling seeds of wild oats are "alive" and quickly plunged into the ground. Now the grains are quietly lying before the next spring to give new shoots.
And yet with oats all the time struggling, because it clogs the cereal plants and brings a lot of damage to the crops:
- Strongly withers the soil, leaving no moisture cultural grains. On the formation of 1 kg of fruit, oats take 700 liters of water, for comparison, wheat - up to 500 liters;
- Very depletes the soil. For 100 kg of grain, the oats are empty using 50 kg of nitrogen, 10-15 kg of nitrogen, 30 kg of potassium. Wheat for 100 kg of grain requires nitrogen 30 kg, phosphorus 10 kg, potassium 20 kg;
- Spreads the root rot;
- Promotes reproduction of the Swedish fly, nematode, bunt;
- Greatly reduces the yield of cash crops (for example, if wheat crops are clogged with oats, then its yield steadily drops by 10 kg per hectare);
- Easily crossed with the cultivated oats, reducing its breeding qualities.
Methods of struggle
To defeat the wild oats, herbicides are used. High efficiency was shown by "Horizon 080 BC" And "The topic of Super 240 KE." It is recommended to use the herbicide "Axial 045" in barley crops.
If the oats are heavily clogged, use field fallowing, use the conditioning seed.
Ogorodniki is often used to combat this malicious weed by mowing its shoots, trying to destroy common wild oats until the maturation phase and the seeds are scattered to the ground. But this method is ineffective, because in this amazing plant the maturation of the seeds in the panicle is stretched in time. What does it mean? The panicle consists of three tiers, in each of which the seeds ripen in due time. At the bottom grains are still quite green, and from the top they are already crumbling. Full shedding takes a whole month! Another wonderful mechanism of survival, which Mother Nature has given to owls is common.
But that is not all. In each tier the panicles differ in appearance and biological characteristics, they have their own function:
- In the lower tier there are large grains. They clog the grain;
- In the middle tier fruits are slightly smaller. Their main task is to ensure the annual renewal of oat shoots of empty;
- The smallest seeds are in the upper tier of panicle. They are the most insidious and viable. They lie in the soil till 7-9 years old, and when the farmer was completely overjoyed that wild oats have won in their field, they suddenly give sprouts.
Ovsyug in folk medicine
The chemical composition of this weed plant is still poorly understood, but folk healers found it to be used: to soften the seals in abscesses, to give birth, to raise the tone of the uterus musculature, to get rid of nicotine dependence, to fight oncology.