Looking for a root word

Rooted words are words that are similar in meaning and have a common part. It is not difficult to guess that this common part must be a root (or one of the roots, if the word is complex). Therefore, the first thing to understand is what is the root. The rule of Russian language for 1 class says that the root is the general part of related words, which includes their basic meaning.

Like a tree, the word "grows" from the root.

The ability to correctly select related words (they are also single-root) allows us to write competently. This concerns such an orthogram as an unstressed vowel at the root (for example, in the word "river" the unstressed "e" checks the single-root word "river", in which "e" is under stress).

Children often confuse kinship with different forms of the same word. So, for the word "mouse" - "mouse" - this is a single root word, and "mouse" is another form of the same thing. Forms of a word change with a change in its end, and related words are formed with prefixes and suffixes. And consoles can change the meaning of the word even to the opposite. For example, the antonyms Arrival and Departure are at the same time single-root words.

Another common mistake in determining single-root words is to accept for related words those in which the root coincides in writing and sounding, but not in meaning. Such roots are called homonymous. For example, in the words "to wear", "tray", "porter" - root -non-in words "nose", "sock", "nose" - also -non-but there is nothing in common in their meanings. Words with homonymous roots are not crooked. The reverse situation can be observed in words very similar in meaning, but not having a common root. For example: a dog - a puppy, a horse - a foal, etc. The Russian language is not only rich, but also very unpredictable!

The root words can be either one part of the speech or different (run, runner, runner - these are nouns, run, run - verbs, running, runaway - adjectives, running - participles).

An interesting moment in word formation is the alternation of sounds in the roots of related words, and like vowels (dawns, hang - hung), and consonants (friend-friends-friends, dry-dry). Variants are possible when consonants alternate with combinations of consonants (driving - driving, catching - catching), and vowels - with "zero sound", the so-called fluent vowel (father-father, sleep-sleep).

A root can have two or more roots. Such words are called complex. One root in this case will be related, and the other will serve as the basis for the formation of a new meaning word. For example: greenery - evergreen, earth - tiller, electricity - hydroelectric power station.

All related words, ordered with respect to their production, collectively form a word-building nest. At the base of the nest is a vertex (the original word), from which derived single-root words are formed. Examples: singing - singing, singing - singing - sang; Old - aging - aging - outdated. The word-formation nest can be weakly turned (up to two derivatives) and strongly expanded (vertex and more than three derivatives). An example of a strongly deployed nest can be the one-root words for the word "house": a house, a house, a house, a house, a home, a homeless, a housewife, a homeless, homeless, a homebody, household members, a homeowner, housekeeping, house building, house building, an orphanage, a madhouse.

Now you know what a root word is!

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