The demonstrative pronouns in the English language and the features of their meanings

Pronouns of the English language are divided into certain categories according to their meaning and principles of use. Our task is to consider the index, the essence of which lies in the fact that they point to a specific object and determine its location in relation to the speaker.

These pronouns are divided into two forms for the singular - this (this, this is the thing that is closer) and that (that, that is the thing that is further), and the corresponding variants in the plural - these (these) and those (those).

The demonstrative pronouns are used in the utterance in the form of pronouns of adjectives and nouns.

So, speaking in the form of a noun, they define it. When this pronoun is used in the sentence, before the noun it refers to, it is no longer necessary to use the article. If there are more definitions before the concept, then the position of the demonstrative pronoun is in front of them. She likes this bright cup. "She likes this bright cup."

Indicative pronouns-nouns are used according to the same rules as the corresponding adjectives.

Note that the demonstrative pronoun this, if used with the noun "country", should be used in the meaning of "the country in which the speaker lives or the author of the work". For example, if you read an English newspaper and meet the phrase "this county" in it, it should be understood that here it is about the UK. If this phrase occurs in an American newspaper, then the author means the United States.

When it comes to a country in which the author is not present at the moment of speech, then the expression sounds like "that country", which can be translated as "this country" or "that country".

Such demonstrative pronouns like this and that often form stable combinations of words that differ in some features of meanings. So, this in combination with the noun "government" can be translated both as an American and as an English government. Everything depends on the country in which the speaker is located. The same can be said about the phrase "this market" (American or English market).

The demonstrative pronouns in English have some peculiarities of use when used in combinations denoting time. So, this is applicable when it comes to the current time or the moment of speech. As for that, it characterizes only the past or the future time.

Very often, after these pronouns, the pronoun one may be substituted, which replaces the previously mentioned noun. It is used to avoid tautology.

Note that the demonstrative pronouns these and those function in speech differently than the singular form, because after them the pronoun ones is not used.

So, the arrangement of the given pronouns in the sentence can be as follows:

1. They can be in front of a noun.

2. Before one.

3. Before the phrase "feature + subject".

4. Independently, if the noun is implied, but not used.

    Each of the pronouns has some peculiarities of use:

    1. This is sometimes used in relation to the direct speech that stands behind it. As for that, then it is used in the case when a direct speech stands before him. Note that this pronoun can be used in relation to the previous statement.

    2. The pronoun that one must replace the noun in the singular, which was used earlier. This is done in order to avoid tautology.

    3. Sometimes in the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun you can find it, which is translated into Russian by the word "it".

      The English demonstrative pronouns are also such and same. The first of these is used as an adjective (meaning "such"), and as a noun (with the meaning "such"). If this pronoun is used with a countable noun, then to the latter is an indefinite article, whose place is in front of such a pronoun. As for the pronoun same, it can be used with both the value of the adjective and the noun. It is translated as "the same", "the same".

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