Tendonitis or tendonosis is the inflammatory process in the tendon. In addition to tendonitis, this group of diseases include tendovaginitis (inflammation of the synovial vagina around the tendon) and paratenonitis (an inflammatory process in the perivascular tissue). Differentiation of these diseases is difficult, besides they often occur simultaneously. The methods of their treatment are similar.
The most common cause of this disease is frequent, monotonous physical activity or trauma, leading to tendon rupture and degenerative changes in it. Thus, tendonitis, whose treatment can be very long, is often developed in athletes. In the risk group are people of certain professions - for example, painters, carpenters, carpenters. The disease can develop as a result of intensive work on the garden-dacha site - for example, when digging up the earth, raking leaves, cleaning the tracks from snow. The risk of its occurrence is increased and those whose posture is far from ideal, as well as those who independently engaged in physical culture, but does not pay due attention to stretching exercises.
The emergence of tendonitis can contribute to a number of diseases: arthritis of various nature (rheumatoid, polyarthritis, psoriatic), spondylitis, bacterial infections. It can also arise as a result of anomalies in the structure of the musculoskeletal system, a violation of calcium metabolism. You can get tendonitis at any age, but more often it happens after forty years, as the tendons become less elastic with age.
Tendons consist of a strong and dense connective tissue, with their help the muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton. By and large, any tendon can be inflamed, on any part of the body, however tendonitis, the treatment of which requires patience, often manifests itself in certain places. This is, first of all, the base of the thumb, elbow, shoulder, knee, heel tendon. Tendonitis of the shoulder can have different localization: in the tendons of the biceps muscle (biceps) responsible for flexion-extension of the arm, or the rotator cuff of the shoulder joint, fixing the position of the humerus and allowing it to rotate by hand. In the elbow, the tendonitis of the flexor extensor muscles ("the elbow of the tennis player") develops.
One of the most difficult to treat varieties of the disease is tendonitis of the knee joint. There are tendonitis of the knee ligament (it is also called the "knee of the jumper") and the quadriceps muscle. The first of them is one of the most common sports injuries - while as a result of micro-snaps of tendon fibers develops tendon inflammation, which connects the knee cap with the tibia. This tendonitis, whose treatment is usually long, is provoked by violation of the training regime - repeated jumps without rest and movement changes. Tendonitis of the quadriceps muscle is an inflammation of the tendon that connects the knee cap and quadriceps, which participates in extension. Most often it develops in athletes-athletes - runners and jumpers. This tendonitis, the treatment of which usually proceeds faster and more efficiently, is much less common.
To treat tendonitis was successful, it is necessary, first of all, to provide the inflamed tendon rest. For this, in most cases immobilization of the limb is used, bed rest is recommended. Usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ("Ibuprofen", "Indomethacin") are administered - inside or in the form of injections. Locally used anti-inflammatory ointments with analgesic effect, and in severe cases - injections of lidocaine and glucocorticosteroids. After the acute inflammation subsides, physiotherapy procedures are prescribed. In some cases, in the absence of effect, operative treatment is shown, during which the dissection of tendon aponeuroses is performed.