Parents of future first-graders often joke that preparing a child to enter school is just as difficult as an astronaut for the first flight. And partly this is true. Constant changes in the standards of education lead moms and dads, and grandmothers with grandparents especially, in confusion. And before the parents who are taking the child to school, the question arises what exactly the child should know to the first class.
It's good to start preparing for school one year before admission. This will give the child an opportunity to get to know the teachers and choose his "second mother", adapt to the new school conditions and form the skills necessary for the future first-grader.
But if there is no such opportunity or time is already lost, there is no harm. Let's consider in detail everything that a child should know to GEF 1 class.
Psychological aspects of readiness for school
The most important skill that a child who goes to the first class should have is not knowledge of certain disciplines, but his psychological readiness for school. It includes the ability to perceive new knowledge, to join a new children's collective, perseverance. Psychological immaturity of the baby can turn an elementary school into an unbearable burden and discourage the desire to learn.
That in the first class the kid does not face such problems as non-assimilation of material in mathematics or writing because of his restlessness or distracted attention, the primary task of parents is to help the kid in overcoming psychological problems. Of course, the task of psychological preparation for the school is with the teachers and psychologist of the kindergarten, but one should not rely entirely on other people. Whatever professionals they are, no one knows your child better than you.
So, let's look at the psychological skills that will help a child to easily meet a new stage of his life - enrolling in school.
|Consistency and desire for knowledge||The concentration of attention in preschoolers takes a short time. And learn new material for 30-45 minutes (the standard time of the lesson), he can not do it. Therefore, the primary task of the mother of the future first-grader will develop in him perseverance and interest in new knowledge.|
|New knowledge is the key to success|
Mom and Dad should motivate the child correctly: you go to school to become an educated person; The knowledge you have gained will help you not only succeed, but also make the world a better place. (And not so: go to school, all children at your age go to school).
|Good to study is the main task||Explain to the kid that studying at school is an important and important task. You can compare his lessons at school with the work of his parents. For work give a reward (salary). And the award for good study will be high marks. Do not reward the child with money for good grades. He must understand that the meaning of learning is in acquiring new knowledge.|
Given the compulsory admission to school upon reaching a child of six years of age, parents and children have no choice: go to school or wait for more.
Psychological preparation of children for school is entirely in the hands of his parents. Their care, attention and support will be needed for the baby when he takes his first steps on his new school path. Relatives and relatives will help to cope with the difficulties of this life stage and share the first pleasures and successes.
Is your baby ready for school?
The main indicator of readiness without problems to be trained in the first class, after psychological aspects, is the development of speech in the baby. It is the development of the speech apparatus that determines the level of preparation of the child and serves as the main criterion for its development as a whole.
In order for the school to be fun, the student must:
- Clearly and accurately pronounce all the sounds.
- To feel the rhythm of speech (to pronounce all the syllables in words with a complex pronunciation).
- To be able to participate in the general discussion, do not hesitate to speak with the whole class.
- Select the given sounds in the general flow of speech.
- Be able to ask questions on the assignment.
- Learn to give a detailed answer to the question.
In addition to having a competent and correct speech, a number of requirements are imposed on the future student. Let us consider in detail what a child should know by the first grade and what skills he has for each subject.
For successful mastering of the first grade material in mathematics, the preschooler must:
- Know the name of the digits from 0 to 9 and count to 10.
- Continue a series of numbers from any number, not only from 1.
- Know the "neighbors" of each figure, counting to 10.
- Call the larger and smaller of two numbers within 10.
- Distinguish simple geometric figures: a square, a rhombus, a circle and a triangle.
- To cope with the simplest mathematical problems requiring the addition of numbers or taking one from the other.
- Form objects into groups, given their color, shape, size.
How to help
To help a child learn the necessary mathematical skills is very simple. Play with it in the game - count the birds outside the window, the houses that you pass, the cars, while you are traveling in the transport.
Walking in the park, draw figures with a stick on the ground, lay them out of small pebbles or write on the asphalt with colored crayons.
Play with the kid to school. Orally ask a simple task: the cat has 2 pink bow and 3 blue. And how many of them all? The answer the child can write on a leaflet. This will help him by ear to perceive tasks and practice in writing numbers.
On the question of whether a child should be able to read syllables in 5-6 years, there is no definitive answer. Discussion on this issue continues among mothers and teachers. Adherents of the ability to read lead in their favor the argument of a loaded school program. Their opponents argue that teaching reading is best left to professionals.
Therefore, to teach your child to read or not, everyone decides for himself. And it depends on the individual characteristics of the baby. If you managed to instill in interest in the form of interest in letters, and your daughter or son learned to read, perfectly!
But if attempts to teach a child to read lead to a strong resistance on his part, you should not insist. Otherwise, you risk forever repelling his love not only for books, but for learning as a whole.
If the ability to read in syllables in 5-6 years from the child is not required, then he must have some basic skills:
- Know the letters and understand what sounds they correspond to.
- Select the given sound from the word.
- To think up words for the letter you want.
- Know what a sentence is, find its beginning and end.
- Understand the text you hear, be able to analyze it.
- To give answers to questions to the text.
Encourage the child to love literature. Read together those books that interest him. These can be stories about animals, fairy tales or children's magazines. Often play with words. You can combine these games with the ball game. Choose words for a certain letter, look for a letter in different words, make up a new word, rearranging the letters, divide the words into syllables (they can be sung).
If the question of whether to teach the child to read is controversial, then it is definitely not worthwhile teaching him to write uppercase letters. After all, the rules for writing letters are insignificant, but they do change. And to retrain a child to write on them is much more difficult than teaching someone who has never tried to write.
But for the successful teaching of writing there are criteria for what the child should know by grade 1:
- Understand the difference between consonants and vowels.
- Know the difference between sound and letters.
- Find the letter in the beginning, middle or end of the word.
- Be able to break the word into syllables.
Develop hand motility
If you teach the kid to write it is not necessary, then it is necessary to develop his fine motor skills. For this it is necessary to disassemble with the child, as:
- Hold in hand a pen (pencil, brush for drawing).
- Add the given geometric figure from the matches or sticks to the score.
- To depict an animal, a person.
- Paint, without going over the edge.
- Draw lines without the help of a ruler.
- Vlepit from plasticine the desired figure.
- Cut out the drawn elements from the paper.
- Copy the printed letters from the sample.
Take time to develop motor skills. To do this, classes are suitable for modeling, drawing, folding puzzles and creating applications. A good motility of the fingers will help the future student not only with creative tasks in school, but also develops a beautiful handwriting and fluent speech.
When entering school, be prepared to test what the child needs to know by grade 1. Tests or oral form of the interview - the procedure is chosen at the discretion of the administration of the educational institution, in which you aspire to get.
The household skills required by a child who goes to first grade
In addition, what a child needs to know by grade 1, there are a number of skills that he needs at home for a successful "school career". Quickly and easily accustomed to the school routine of the day, the child who is at home responsible for his responsibilities. Most preschool children already know how to wash themselves, remove the bed and put things.
When preparing for the school stage of life, the child should be taught the following:
- Independently fold the backpack. To begin with, he will do this under the dictation of an adult. Then it is enough to double-check everything on the spot. And the third stage is the child's own responsibility for the collected things.
- Prepare in the evening those clothes in which he will go to class.
- Observe the mode of the day and week. In order not to miss additional exercises or training, you can make notes in the calendar with a bright marker.
- Keep clean at your "workplace". And the responsibility of moms and dads is to control the correctness of the lighting and the height of the chair.
For the first time having read the list of skills necessary for a first-grader, you can be shocked. But do not panic. After all, schools are replenished every year with new first-graders, whose level of training is very different from the established standards. The most important thing is to help the child to believe in themselves, their strengths. Going to the first class, the kid should be sure that you will come to his rescue at any time.
Prepare for the school with the whole family, deal with the child in a playful way and motivate him to succeed. Then you can easily give a positive answer to the question of whether the child is ready for school.