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Where are the Ore Mountains? Ore Mountains: description and photo

When asked where the Ore Mountains are located, there are several possible answers. The most famous mountain ridge with the same name on the border of Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany). This region since ancient times is known as the center of extraction of copper, silver, tin, iron. It is one of the centers of the origin of metallurgy in Europe. Its Ore Mountains are in Slovakia, representing a part of the Western Carpathians. This name is also found in the toponymy of other countries.


The Ore Mountains are related to the Hercynian folding and represent a "fragment" of Rodinia's supercontinent, which was split 750 million years ago. Their area is 18000 km 2 . Later, during the Tertiary period, during the formation of the Alps, a fault occurred, and the southeastern part of the mountains rose high above the surrounding landscape.

In its history, the territory has been subjected to powerful tectonic influence several times, which is reflected in the layered structure of rocks: granites, gneisses, sandstone, iron, copper-tin ores and others. Thanks to the erosion processes, which operated for hundreds of millions of years, once peaked peaks actually turned into gentle hills.

The south-eastern block, facing the Czech Republic, rises steeply over the Bohemian depression with elevations of up to 700 m. The north-western block, facing Germany, descends smoothly, forming a ramified water network.

Where are the Ore Mountains

This massif is located in Central Europe, being the natural border between the Czech Republic and Germany. It represents a continuous ridge with a length of more than 150 kilometers, oriented along the line northeast-south-west. The highest peaks:

  • Klinovec (1244 m).
  • Fichtelberg (1214 m).
  • Spitsberg (1120 m).
  • Auersberg (1022 m).

The picturesque area is very popular among tourists, there are dozens of large balneological, ski and climatic resorts. It is easily accessible from Dresden, Prague, Karlovy Vary.

Ore Mountains, Czech Republic

The state border divides the array into two unequal parts. The Czech part is called Krusne-gori and is bounded by the Ohře River. It is smaller than the German one (about 6000 km 2 ), but much steeper.

A powerful uplift led to the formation on the southeast slope of a multitude of deep transverse valleys. In ancient times, there were several large lakes, which subsequently dried up. The rivers are short, fast, some have platinum. Krusne-Gori are famous for their curative springs: Teplice, Karlovy Vary, Bilina, Jachymov and others.

The climate in the region is unpredictable with rapid weather changes. It differs by strong winds of the northern and western directions, hurricanes are not rare. High humidity (1000-1200 mm of precipitation) contributes to the formation of fogs (90-125 days per year).

Winters are cold and snowy. Frosts are possible even in June, and since September. Summer is cool and rainy, real heat is set closer to August and lasts 2-3 weeks. The average temperature at altitudes of 900-1200 m is 4-2.5 ° C. Due to the abundance of snow in winter, ski resorts operate here.

The Ore Mountains in the Czech Republic are rich in minerals and organic minerals. Known deposits of tungsten, iron, cobalt, nickel, tin, copper, lead, silver, coal. In the XX century, uranium deposits were discovered.

Coal mining

The North Bohemian brown coal basin is located in the central part of the Ore Mountains. It is formed on the site of the rift valley that existed in the Miocene. According to geologists, for 20 million years there was accumulated up to half a kilometer of the sedimentary layer, which included organic matter, sand, clay.

Over time, the Ore Mountains "pressed" the rift valley, forming a coal layer 25-45 meters thick. Intensive coal mining began in the XIX century. Uncontrolled economic activity has led to a significant change in the landscape and ecological catastrophe. Large tracts of forests were cut down, toxic substances got into the soil. Recultivation projects of recent decades have allowed to partially restore the ecosystem, on the site of the radar of open-cast mines, lakes attract tourists. At the moment there are several mines, but their production is limited.


Ore mountains in Germany (also called Erzgebirge) are more gentle, although here there are peaks over 1000 meters. They are very picturesque, they grew in wood. In the region of Pirna (near Dresden), due to the weathering of soft rocks, surprising geological formations in the form of granite walls were formed. This region is called "Saxon Switzerland". Near Scheibenberg stands a wall of basalt pillars.

The climate in this area is moderate. Primarily, the western winds bring moist air masses from the Atlantic, warmed up by the Gulf Stream in winter. At altitudes above 900 m the average annual temperatures are 3-5 ° C. The amount of precipitation is about 1100 mm. The ridges of the Ore Mountains are among the most snowy in Germany. According to historical data, the winters were so severe that even the cattle froze in the sheds, and in April there were snowfalls that completely swept the houses. Now the winters are softer, with frequent thaws.

The Ore Mountains in Saxony are also rich in natural resources, but their industrial potential is almost exhausted. According to excavations, copper was mined here at the dawn of the Bronze Age. Now the unique historical and cultural landscape is protected as part of the UNESCO World Heritage.

The Erzgebirge has a high population density. On its perimeter are major cultural and historical centers: Dresden, Chemnitz, Plauen, Zwickau, Auz, Gera. The region's industry is one of the most developed in Germany. More than 60% of employees are engaged in metallurgy, electrical engineering and machine building.

The impact of the anthropogenic factor is certainly great. The development of mining required a considerable amount of timber. In some areas the forests were completely cut down. Now the ecosystem is being restored. In the Ore Mountains there are several national parks, but outside the protected areas a large area is allocated to green spaces.

The Ore Mountains

Slovak Ore Mountains are medium-high mountains located in the central-eastern part of the country. They are one of the ridges of the Western Carpathians. They extend along the line "west - east" to 140 (according to other sources - 160) kilometers, the average width is 40 km, the area of the massif is about 4000 km 2 .

The border of the northern Rudogoriya passes along the Gron River, the southern one along the Ipel River. The landscape is reminiscent of the Czech-German Ore Mountains. The tops are mostly flat, sometimes with pointed peaks, the slopes smoothly pass into valleys. The highest are Mount Capital (1476 m) and Mount Polyana (1468 m).


The mountains are composed of both solid crystalline and limestone rocks susceptible to karst formation. In the XIV-XIX centuries the region was a large metallurgical center. Here, antimony, copper, iron, and gold were mined. At present, most of the deposits of metal ores have been mined, but nonmetallic minerals continue to be mined: magnesites, talc and others.

Nature is typical of the mountain regions of Central Europe. On northern, colder slopes, coniferous forests grow. In the southern, deciduous species predominate: beech, ash, hornbeam, oak and others. Three national parks operate on the territory of the Slovak Ore Mountains:

  • "Slovak Paradise".
  • "Slovak karst".
  • "The Murano plateau."


The Caucasian mountains are also sometimes called ore mines. This is due to significant reserves of minerals. A particular feature of the region is the deep occurrence of minerals concentrated in places of magmatic rocks concentration.

The Caucasian mountains are rich in ore minerals, because here powerful (and now pass) powerful tectonic processes have taken place since the Paleozoic times. Manganese is mined in Georgia (the Chiatura deposit). Large deposits of iron are found in Kabardino-Balkaria (Malkinskoye deposit), Azerbaijan (Dashkesan), Armenia (Abovyan, Hrazdan). Also extracted tungsten, copper, mercury, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, lead and other metals.

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