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Vacuum collector for heating. Vacuum solar collector with your own hands

The person has learned to use solar energy for own needs for a long time. Today, people apply this knowledge, including for the production of solar collectors, with the help of which the energy of the sun turns into heat. Such a device can not be called quite complicated, so you can make it yourself.

Vacuum Collector

Vacuum collector is an equipment that more than others reduces heat loss. This is possible due to the conditions that are maintained between the shell of the unit and the heater. The system is made up of glass tubes that are devoid of air. The black tube, located inside, heats up, thanks to this the design is able to raise the water temperature to 300 degrees. Despite the high efficiency, the system has no possibility of self-cleaning from frost and snow.

Flat Collector

The flat collector differs from the above described in that it has a much higher heat loss. Such structures can be cleaned without the help of a person from minor snow drifts. The device looks like a transparent panel, inside of which there are tubes. The rear wall has a heat-insulating layer. The water can be heated up to 200 degrees. Under the influence of a strong wind, an impressive load can be applied to the fastening, which is also facilitated by non-flowing forms.

Air Collector

The air collector is a flat installation, as the coolant in which air is used. Such equipment is simple enough to produce independently, but it is worth considering that the unit has a low coefficient of efficiency, and it can not be used for heating water. The tubular manifold consists of four tubes filled with a coolant. Circulation becomes possible due to the difference in temperatures of the lower zone of the reservoir and the collector. Such a system differs from a flat more impressive surface area, which is designed to absorb light. Movable systems are installations that rotate behind the movement of the sun. For the work, you can choose a design that unfolds completely, or a device that is equipped with a mirror, as well as a heating element. The master should also know about the principle of the collector, which consists in the fact that the solar radiation during the process heats the tube with the coolant, and afterwards the heat goes into the battery. You can independently manufacture vacuum collectors for heating from improvised means, but first of all it is important to familiarize yourself with the technology of work.

Making a simple solar collector

If a vacuum solar collector is manufactured by hand, then galvanized containers for water should be prepared. Its volume can range from 100 to 200 liters. The container must be placed on the roof. 100 liters of liquid can heat up to a mark of +60 degrees if the barrel is installed on the south side of the roof. The latter should be covered with a metallic shiny sheet. The coefficient of efficiency in this case will be much higher, since the area of heat exchange with air is minimal. It is recommended to use such a simple solar collector in areas where ecology is maintained at the required level, it is best to operate such a system away from the contaminated sites. It should be noted that in winter such an aggregate is able to produce less heat.

Manufacture of a collector from a radiator and металлопластиковых pipes

If a vacuum collector is to be manufactured, a more sophisticated technology can be used. Quite cheap materials can be used for the work, but water can be heated in a very simple way. To manipulate will need steel boxes, fittings, metal-plastic pipes, glass, as well as radiators made of steel, in the number of two pieces.

Technology of work

In order to make a vacuum collector, the radiators should be placed in metal boxes on the roof surface. They are covered with glass, and their purpose is to reduce the period of heating the water. When installing them, remember that the top is below the storage tank. This will allow the water to rise naturally into the tank. When preparing a vacuum collector, you should remember that circulation should be done in the usual way. Pipes of the water wire should be laid with a slight slope downwards, turning the elements towards the radiators. A plastic container, the volume of which is 160 liters, should be installed in the attic of the house. It connects to radiators with the help of metal-plastic pipes, which are interfaced with fittings.

The water with the highest temperature should be located in the upper part of the tank. To do this, the tube with warm water must be connected to the container above the center. At the bottom of the radiator drainage cranes are installed to drain water in the winter.

Manufacturing of a collector on the basis of a wooden frame

If you decide to make a vacuum solar collector yourself, then you can use the technology below. To do this, prepare an insulating material, a metal black mesh, a deflector, two number of fans, a polycarbonate sheet and a wooden frame that has a bottom of plywood.

Nuances of works

In the bottom of the frame it is necessary to make two holes in the form of a circle in order to be able to take air. In the upper part you need to make 2 holes, which will have a rectangular shape. They are necessary for removing hot air from the structure. At the bottom you need to lay insulation material. Accumulation of heat occurs with the help of a metal black mesh. Two fans should be installed in a circular hole. The support bars of the deflector are installed in the structure, and afterwards the deflector itself is fixed. It is required for the formation of air flow. If you decide to make such a vacuum-tube collector, at the final stage the device is fixed to the wall of the building. As practice shows, the efficiency of this equipment is 50%. It can be used to heat rooms.

Features of the installation of the reservoir

Vacuum solar collector for heating to produce independently though it is possible, however, the work differs to some degree of complexity. It is important to correctly determine the installation site, in order for the efficiency to be raised as high as possible. The installation must be oriented to the south. The deviation is 25 degrees in both directions. It is important to exclude all shading factors. The movement of the coolant must be turned from the bottom up. The equipment should not reach the point of overheating until the installation and after it. In one row there should not be more than 3 collectors. If a vacuum manifold is manufactured by one's own hands, and afterwards it is planned to install it in a larger quantity than indicated above, it is necessary to build in a compensator and provide a linear thermal expansion.

Manufacture of a collector from a refrigerator coil

If you are planning to manufacture the construction described in the article yourself, it will be important to find out what the vacuum manifold is. This you can understand from the below presented method, which involves the use of a coil cooler. Among other things, you need foil and slats, which will form the basis of the frame. Prepare a rubber mat, water tank or container. It is important to stock up the glass, as well as shut-off valves by the type of pipes and valves. Initially, it is necessary to wash the coil from the freon. Then the rack frame is knocked down. Its exact dimensions depend on the size of the working unit. The rug needs to be adjusted to the existing rails, among which it is important to freely position the coil. On the rubber mat, which will act as the bottom of the frame, you need to lay a layer of insulation. After the coil is strengthened with screw clamps. In the walls, the master must make holes through which the vacuum tubes will pass. Solar collector for this technology will be highly effective. If there is a need to increase productivity, then sealed joints can be sealed with a sealant. Glass is fixed from above by means of an adhesive tape. In order not to worry about strength, it is recommended to prepare aluminum plates, making special clamps of them.

Alternative solution for vacuum collector

It is important not only to correctly pick up vacuum tubes for the collector, but also to build the remaining elements that will form the basis of the system. For the box, in which the radiator will be installed, wooden 120 mm boards will fit, which is their width; The thickness of the blanks should be 30 cm. For the bottom you can use textolite, which is supplemented by stiffeners. The bottom should be insulated with foam or mineral wool, which is covered with galvanized top. Next, two pipes are prepared, the diameter of which should be 1 inch. It will take 15 thin-walled pipes with a diameter of 0.5 inches. In thicker elements, drill holes to perpendicularly install thinner components. The structure is welded into a single device. The heat exchanger is installed on a galvanized sheet, reinforced using steel clamps. In order to increase the formation of heat, you can paint the surface in black, external elements are painted white to reduce heat loss. At the final stage, you should install the glass to the walls of the box, making a high-quality seal. The pitch between the pipes and the glass should be 12 millimeters. These parameters are extremely important to take into account, only then it will be possible to achieve the expected positive result, at which the efficiency of the installation will be at a height.

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