The problem of the "Dog Heart" allows you to fully explore the essence of the work of the famous Soviet writer Mikhail Bulgakov. The story was written in 1925. Why it is considered one of the key works of Russian literature of the early 20th century, let's try to figure it out together.
The problem of "The Heart of a Dog" was penetrated by everyone who came across this work. His original name was "A Dog's Heart. A Monstrous Story." But then the author decided that the second part only weighted the headline.
The first listeners of the story were friends and acquaintances of Bulgakov, who gathered at the Nikitinsky subbotnik. The story made a great impression. Everyone was discussing her animatedly, noting her insolence. The problems of the story "The Dog Heart" has become one of the most discussed topics for the coming months among the metropolitan educated society. As a result, rumors about it reached law enforcement bodies. Bulgakov's house was searched, the manuscript was confiscated. It never came to light during his lifetime, being published only in the years of perestroika.
And it can be understood. After all, the problems of the "Dog Heart" reflected the main problems of Soviet society, which manifested itself almost immediately after the victory of the October Revolution. After all, in fact, Bulgakov compared power with a dog, which turns into a selfish and vile person.
The situation in Soviet Russia
Analyzing the problems of "The Heart of a Dog," one can study what the cultural and historical situation in Russia was after the Bolsheviks came to power. The story reflects all the ills that the Soviet people had to face in the first half of the 1920s.
In the center of the narrative is a scientific experiment conducted by Professor Preobrazhensky. He transplanted the human pituitary gland to the dog. The results exceed all expectations. For a few days the dog turns into a human.
This work was a response of Bulgakov to the events taking place in the country. The scientific experiment, which he portrayed, is a vivid and accurate picture of the proletarian revolution and its consequences.
In the story the author puts before the reader many important questions. How does the revolution correlate with evolution, what is the nature of the new power and the future of the intelligentsia? But Bulgakov is not limited to general political topics. He is also concerned about the problem of old and new morality and morality. It is important for him to find out which of them is more humane.
Opposing the social strata
The problem of the novel "The Heart of a Dog" by Bulgakov in many respects lies in contrasting the various layers of society, the gap between which was especially acute in those days. The intelligentsia is personified by professor, philosopher of science Philip Preobrazhensky. The representative of the "new" person born of the revolution is the householder Shvonder, and later Sharikov, influenced by the speeches of his new friend and the propaganda communist literature.
Assistant Preobrazhensky, Dr. Bormental, calls it the creator, but the author himself clearly has a different opinion. He is not ready to admire the professor.
Laws of Evolution
The main complaint is that Preobrazhensky encroached on the basic laws of evolution, tried on the role of God. He creates a man with his own hands, conducting, in fact, a monstrous experiment. Here Bulgakov makes a reference to his original title.
It is worth noting that exactly as an experiment Bulgakov perceived everything that happened then in the country. And the experiment is grandiose in scale and at the same time dangerous. The main thing, in which the author refuses to Preobrazhensky, is in the moral law of the creator. After all, having endowed a good homeless dog with human habits, Preobrazhensky made of Sharikov the embodiment of all the terrible things that were in people. Did the professor have this right? This question can be characterized by the problems of Bulgakov's "Dog Heart".
References to fiction
In the story of Bulgakov intertwines many genres. But the most obvious are the references to fiction. They are the key artistic feature of the work. As a result, realism is brought to utter absurdity.
One of the main theses of the author is the impossibility of a violent reorganization of society. Especially such a cardinal. History shows that in many ways he was right. Errors committed by the Bolsheviks, today constitute the basis of history textbooks devoted to that period.
Becoming a person, the Ball represents the average character of that era. The main thing in his life is class hatred of enemies. That is, the proletarians do not tolerate the spirit of the bourgeois. Over time, this hatred extends to the rich, and then to educated people and ordinary intellectuals. It turns out that the basis of a new world is hatred of everything old. Obviously, a world based on hatred had no future.
Slaves in power
Bulgakov tries to convey his position - in power were slaves. It's about this "Dog's heart". The problem is that they have the right to govern before even a minimal education and understanding of culture. In such people, the darkest instincts wake up, as in Sharikov. Humanity is powerless before them.
Among the artistic features of this work, it is necessary to note numerous associations and references to domestic and foreign classics. The key to the work can be obtained if you analyze the exposure of the story.
Elements that we meet in the outset of the "Dog Heart" (blizzard, winter cold, stray dog), refer us to the poem of the Bloc "Twelve."
An important role is played by such an insignificant detail as the collar. Blok hides his burdens in his collar, and in Bulgakov it is through the collar that a homeless dog determines the status of Preobrazhensky, realizing that before him is a benefactor, not a hungry proletarian.
In general, we can conclude that the "Dog Heart" is Bulgakov's outstanding work, which plays a key role both in his work and in all Russian literature. First of all, according to the ideological plan. But his artistic features, and the problems raised in the story, are also highly appreciated.