For the normal operation of household appliances requires a stable voltage. As a rule, various failures can occur on the network. Voltage from 220 V can deviate, and the device malfunctions. In the first place, the lamps hit. If we consider household appliances in the house, then TVs, audio equipment and other devices that operate on the power grid may suffer.
In this situation, an impulse voltage regulator comes to the aid of people. He is fully able to cope with the jumps that occur daily. Many are concerned with the question of how the voltage drops appear, and what they are related to. They depend mainly on the load of the transformer. To date, the number of electrical appliances in homes has been increasing all the time. As a result, the demand for electricity is sure to grow.
Also, it should be borne in mind that cables can be laid to the residential building, which have long since become obsolete. In turn, apartment wiring in most cases is not designed for heavy loads. To protect your equipment in the house, you should learn more about the device of voltage stabilizers, as well as the principle of their operation.
What are the functions of the stabilizer?
The main impulse voltage regulator serves as a network controller. All the jumps are monitored and eliminated. As a result, the technician receives a stable voltage. Electromagnetic interference by the stabilizer is also taken into account, and the devices can not be affected by the operation of the devices. Thus, the network gets rid of overloads, and cases of short circuits are virtually eliminated.
Simple stabilizer device
If we consider a standard pulse voltage regulator, then only one transistor is installed in it. As a rule, they are used exclusively by commuting type, because today they are considered more effective. As a result, the efficiency of the device can be greatly increased.
The second important element of an impulse voltage regulator is diodes. In the usual scheme, they can be found no more than three units. They connect with each other with a throttle. For normal operation of transistors, filters are important. They are installed at the beginning, as well as the end of the chain. In this case, the control unit is responsible for the operation of the capacitor. Its integral part is considered to be a resistor divider.
How it works?
Depending on the type of device, the operating principle of the impulse voltage regulator may differ. Considering the standard model, we can say that first the current is fed to the transistor. At this stage, its transformation takes place. Further on, the diodes are switched on, which are responsible for transmitting the signal to the capacitor. With the help of filters, electromagnetic interference is eliminated. The capacitor at this time smoothes the voltage oscillations and the current through the resistor divider again returns to the transistors for conversion.
You can make an impulse voltage regulator with your own hands, but they will have low power. In this case, the resistors are set to the most usual ones. If you use more than one transistor in the device, you can achieve a high efficiency. An important task in this regard is the installation of filters. They affect the sensitivity of the device. In turn, the dimensions of the device are not at all important.
Stabilizers with one transistor
The constant-voltage impulse regulator of this type boasts an efficiency factor of 80%. As a rule, it operates only in one mode and can cope with only small interference in the network.
Feedback in this case is completely absent. The transistor operates in a standard pulse voltage regulator circuit without a collector. As a result, a large voltage is immediately applied to the capacitor. Another distinguishing feature of instruments of this type is a weak signal. Various amplifiers can solve this problem.
As a result, you can achieve better performance of transistors. The resistor of the device in the circuit must necessarily be behind the voltage divider. In this case, you can achieve better performance of the device. As a regulator in the circuit, the DC voltage regulator has a control unit. This element can weaken, and also increase the power of the transistor. This phenomenon occurs with the help of chokes, which are connected with diodes in the system. The load on the regulator is controlled through filters.
Voltage stabilizers of key type
This type of voltage regulator 12V efficiency has a level of 60%. The main problem is that it is not able to cope with electromagnetic interference. In this case, devices with a power of more than 10 watts are at risk. Modern models of these stabilizers are able to boast a limiting voltage of 12 V. The load on the resistors is significantly weakened. Thus, on the way to the capacitor, the voltage can be completely transformed. Directly the current frequency is generated at the output. The wear of the capacitor in this case is minimal.
Another problem is connected with the use of simple capacitors. In fact, they proved to be pretty bad. The whole problem is precisely the high-frequency emissions that occur in the network. To solve this problem, manufacturers began to install electrolytic capacitors on a voltage pulse regulator (12 volts) . As a result, the quality of work has been improved by increasing the capacity of the device.
How do filters work?
The principle of operation of the standard filter is based on the generation of a signal that is fed to the converter. In addition, the comparison device is used. In order to cope with large fluctuations in the network, the filter requires control units. In this case, the output voltage can be smoothed.
To solve problems with small oscillations, there is a special difference element in the filter. With its help, the voltage passes with a limiting frequency of not more than 5 Hz. In this case, this has a positive effect on the signal that is available at the output in the system.
Modified device models
The maximum load current for this type is perceived to be up to 4 A. The input voltage of the capacitor can be processed up to a mark of no more than 15 V. The input current parameter does not usually exceed 5 A. The ripple in this case is allowed a minimum with an amplitude in the network of not more than 50 mV. The frequency can be maintained at 4 Hz. All this will ultimately have a favorable effect on the overall efficiency.
Modern models of stabilizers of the above type cope with the load in the region of 3 A. Another distinguishing feature of this modification can be called a fast conversion process. In many respects it is connected with the use of powerful transistors, which work with a through current. As a result, it is possible to stabilize the output signal. At the output, a diode of a switching type is additionally activated. It is installed in the system near the voltage node. Losses on heating are significantly reduced, and this is a clear advantage of stabilizers of this type.
Pulse width models
A pulse regulated voltage regulator of this type has a coefficient of efficiency of 80%. The rated current it is able to withstand at a level of 2 A. The input voltage is an average of 15 V. Thus, the ripple of the output current is rather low. A distinctive feature of these devices can be called the ability to work in the closing mode. As a result, it is possible to withstand loads up to 4 A. In this case, short circuits occur extremely rarely.
Of the disadvantages should be noted chokes, which have to cope with the voltage from the capacitors. Ultimately, this leads to a rapid wear of the resistors. To cope with this problem, scientists suggest using a large number of them. Condensers in the network must control the operating frequency of the device. In this case, it becomes possible to eliminate the oscillatory process, as a result of which the efficiency of the stabilizer decreases sharply.
Resistance in the chain must also be taken into account. To this end, scientists install special resistors. In turn, the diodes are able to help with sharp transitions in the circuit. The stabilization mode is activated only at the current limit of the device. To solve the problem with transistors, some use heat sink mechanisms. In this case, the dimensions of the device will increase significantly. Chokes for the system should use multi-channel. Wires for this purpose usually take a series of "PEV". They are initially placed in a magnet drive, which is made of a cup type. In addition, it has an element such as ferrite. Between them should eventually form a gap of no more than 0.5 mm.
Stabilizers for household use are most suitable series "VD4". Current load, they are able to withstand significant due to proportional changes in resistance. At this time, the resistor will handle a small alternating current. It is advisable to pass the input voltage of the device through the filters of the LS series.
How does the stabilizer cope with small pulsations?
First of all, the switching voltage regulator 5V activates the start-up unit, which is connected to the capacitor. The reference current source must send a signal to the comparison device. To solve the conversion problem, a DC amplifier is turned on. Thus, we can immediately calculate the maximum amplitude of the jumps.
Further, through the inductive storage device, the current passes to the commutating diode. In order for the input voltage to be stable, there is an output filter. The limiting frequency can vary considerably. The load of the transistor is maximum capable of withstanding up to 14 kHz. The inductor is responsible for the voltage in the winding. Thanks to ferrite, the current can be stabilized at the initial stage.
The difference between the stabilizers of the raising type
The pulse boosting voltage regulator features powerful capacitors. During the feedback they take the whole load on themselves. In the network, there must be a galvanic isolation. It answers only for raising the limiting frequency in the system.
Additionally, an important element can be called the shutter, which is located behind the transistor. The current it receives from the power source. At the output, the conversion process is from the throttle. At this stage, an electromagnetic field is formed in the capacitor. In the transistor, thus, a supporting voltage is obtained. The process of self-induction begins consistently.
Diodes are not involved at this stage. The first thing the throttle puts on the capacitor, and then the transistor sends it to the filter and also to the throttle again. As a result, feedback is formed. It occurs until the voltage on the control unit stabilizes. This will help him installed diodes, which receive a signal from the transistors, as well as the condenser of the stabilizer.
Principle of operation of inverting devices
The entire inverting process is associated with the activation of the converter. The switching regulator of AC voltage transistors has a closed type "BT" series. Another element of the system can be called a resistor, which monitors the oscillatory process. Direct induction is the reduction of the limiting frequency. At the input it is available at 3 Hz. After conversion processes, the transistor sends a signal to the capacitor. Of course, the limiting frequency can double. In order for the jumps to become less noticeable, a powerful converter is needed.
Resistance in the oscillatory process is also taken into account. This parameter is allowed at a maximum of 10 ohms. Otherwise, the diodes on the transistor signal will not be able to transmit. Another problem is the magnetic interference that exists at the output. In order to install a lot of filters, use the chokes of the "HM" series. The load on the transistors depends directly on the capacitor load. The output uses a magneto-drive, which helps the stabilizer to lower the resistance to the desired level.
How are the reducing stabilizers arranged?
Pulse lowering voltage regulator is usually equipped with capacitors of the "KL" series. In this case, they are able to significantly help with the internal resistance of the device. Power sources are perceived as diverse. On average, the resistance parameter fluctuates around 2 ohms. Behind the indicator of the operating frequency, the resistors are monitored, which are connected to the control unit sending the signal to the converter.
Partially, the load is lost due to the self-induction process. It arises initially in a capacitor. Due to the feedback process, the limiting frequency in some models is able to reach 3 Hz. In this case, the electromagnetic field does not influence the electric circuit.
As a rule, 220 V power supplies are used in the network. In this case, a high efficiency factor can be expected from the impulse voltage regulator. To convert the DC current, the number of transistors in the system is taken into account. Network transformers in power supplies are rarely used. In many respects this is connected with large jumps. However, rectifiers are often installed instead of them. In the power supply it has its own filtration system, which stabilizes the limiting voltage.
Why install expansion joints?
Compensators in most cases play a secondary role in the stabilizer. It is connected with the regulation of impulses. The main thing is with this transistors. However, compensators have their advantages. In this case, much depends on what devices are connected to the power source.
If we talk about radio equipment, then we need a special approach. It is related to various oscillations, which are perceived differently by such a device. In this case, the compensators can help the transistors in stabilizing the voltage. The installation of additional filters in the circuit, as a rule, does not improve the situation. In doing so, they strongly affect the efficiency.
Disadvantages of galvanic interchanges
Galvanic isolation is installed to transfer the signal between the important elements of the system. Their main problem can be called an incorrect estimate of the input voltage. This happens most often with obsolete models of stabilizers. Controllers in them are not able to quickly process information and connect capacitors to operation. In the results, the diodes suffer in the first place. If the filtering system is installed behind the resistors in the electrical circuit, they simply burn.