Pig breeding as a business. Cultivation of pigs: technology, reviews

Pig breeding is considered to be the most profitable direction in animal husbandry. This is due to the fact that these animals quickly gain weight and are unpretentious in food. However, do not forget that, like any business, this will require investment, risk and constant participation in the business.

How to start breeding pigs

Pig breeding as a business can only be considered for those who have prepared a specific plan and are ready to engage in animal rearing every day. Despite the fact that the initiated business will require huge investments and patience, the results that it can bring fully compensate for all efforts. Pig breeding is divided into two areas: the cultivation of animals for meat and breeding, which is not considered as an independent matter. In itself, it is unprofitable. Pork is always in demand. The result of production is meat, fat, skin and blood. They are bought by sausage factories, shops, grocery stores and resellers on the market. Smoked sausages and lard can be stored for a long time, which allows to increase the duration of sales of products without deteriorating its taste qualities. Profitable this business does exactly the sale of meat.

If we are talking about breeding pigs for the needs of our family in the same barn, then we can do without complex calculations. But time and money still have to invest.

Pig breeding for beginners should begin with a business plan. It should take into account such aspects as the organization of the farm, the possible markets for sale, the purchase of feed, the breeds of pigs and their cost, the cost of maintenance. Separately, it is necessary to identify all possible risks and ways to reduce them. For effective start of business, it is recommended to involve experienced specialists, among whom there should be a livestock specialist.

Farm organization

Considering pig farming as a business, the main focus should be on the farm. The room should be light, clean and without drafts. The optimal area for the 300-head flock is 5000 square meters. Meters. This will allow to place in it household, office and production cabinets, as well as a laboratory.

Special attention should be paid to the manure drainage in various variants of the device of the farm. This is a very important factor for compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards, and therefore for healthy growth of livestock.

Equally important is what equipment will be installed on the farm. Equipment for pig production must meet the latest requirements to exclude animal diseases. The success of business depends on how modern it will be. The leaders in the production and development of such equipment are European companies. Modern farms are arranged in such a way that most of the process occurs in an automatic mode. These are the systems of electronic feeding, and separate zones for sow insemination, for farrowing, piglets and fattening. In Russia, such farms are still very rare. It uses equipment, the age of which is 15-20 years. Half of it does not work. The result of such activities is losses.

Acquisition of pigs

To organize a farm for a novice pig, experts recommend buying a herd of 300 animals. Producers in the herd should be no more than 10, sows - no less than 150. This will be the main potential for replenishment of the herd. Almost half of the livestock will need to be fattened and sold for circulation of funds. Buy pigs are better than dozens from different owners, to prevent the mating of animals close in the pedigree. Selection should be made with an experienced zootechnician or veterinarian, who immediately determines the health status of the animal. If the farm, where it is planned to make a purchase of piglets, there are many individuals with unhealthy appearance, it is better not to take risks. And look for another farmer. In any case, this must be done in breeding farms.

Breeds of pigs

In total there are about 100 breeds of pigs in the world. To select the livestock, you need to carefully study them. Each of them has its pros and cons. Pigs are bred for meat, lard and bacon. Porcine pigs have differences, based on what more can be obtained from them. There are differences in their fertility and resistance to changes in the temperature regime. They differ in skin color and temperament.

32 pigs are actively used in Russia. Some of them are shown below.

1. Large white. The most common breed in Russia and the CIS.

2. Landras.

3. Duroc.

You can even see how different all these representatives are.

Contents of pigs

Pig breeding as a business has the main goal - to grow the number of livestock that is, and to provide the litter for the herd replenishment. For this, it is necessary to take into account all the factors, including the time of the year.

Growing pigs is better to start early in the spring. These animals are very thermophilic. For a warm season of a piglet weighing 25 kg grows a pig in 115 kg. With such a mass, they are already ready for sale. Piglets that have been born in a warm period will grow stronger and gain weight.

For normal growth, pigs should drink a lot. If the water supply is not automated, then it must be provided in a different way. Leaving a trough with water is not recommended, as it can easily be turned over. Animals will remain without drinking.

Pigs are very positive about feeding. Food should be balanced depending on their age. The normal gain in weight should be 0.5 kg per day.

Technology of growing pigs

Technologies for breeding these animals have many differences. But they all concern feeding and keeping the herd. Each farmer chooses the one that is most economically acceptable for him and meets the tasks set.

Technologies differ in their approach to the content of pigs. Some are designed for the free movement of the herd. Others completely block it and are aimed at keeping the animal in a narrow cage.

In the world there are various Danish, Brazilian, German, Canadian, Finnish technologies. Each of them has its own opponents and supporters. In Russia, the technology of breeding pigs in hangars is gaining popularity. This is very economical in terms of the construction of the farm.

Those who have already engaged in this business unanimously say that with any technology, the source material (piglets), quality investments in their cultivation and the prices on the market at the time of delivery are important factors for profit.

Development of pig production in Russia

In Russia, pig production is poorly developed. As a business, this kind of livestock is unprofitable for small farms. This is due to the fact that new technologies, which are based on the capabilities of modern equipment, are not being implemented in most farms. Russian plants that produced equipment for pig production are almost completely stopped. What leads to the use of old energy-intensive technologies for keeping animals. This affects costs and reduces the profitability of production.

Pig breeding in Russia is represented by a number of the largest companies that have not given up their positions for several years.

TOP-5 of the most successful producers of pork meat in Russia

№ п / п Company name


year 2013


year 2012

1. Miratorg Group of Companies 356 t 241.1 t
2. GC Cherkizovo 158 t 115 t
3. LLC "GC Agro-Belogorye" 148 t 117.5 t
4. GC "Rusagro" 116 t 57.8 t
5. CJSC Agrarian Group 67 t 53.1 t

As can be seen from the table, the growth in production is obvious. But on a national scale this indicator is very small. Recently, the development of pig production began to pay special attention. This is due to the reorientation of Russia to the domestic market and the ban on the importation of meat from Europe and the United States. For the development of farms, the government plans to allocate special grants.

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