The study of labor processes has many goals. One of the methods is a picture of the working day (FRD), which is the observation and recording of the time spent by an employee or a group of those during a shift. FRD is needed to identify and eliminate shortcomings in the organization of labor, which are the reason for the useless expenditure of working time.
The photo of the working day objectively determines the preparatory-final time costs, the periods of servicing the workplace. It makes it possible to calculate the time needed for personal needs and rest, to obtain the initial material for the analysis of operational time, to develop labor standards. The photo of the working day should be distinguished from the timekeeping, in the course of which only the operative time is fixed.
The photo of the working day is made according to a standard algorithm in three stages. First it is preparation for the observation process. For this, the documentation describing the process under investigation (technological, working, labor safety instructions, job descriptions) is studied. In addition, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the organizational and technical conditions of work, the equipment, tools, tools, overalls and PPE used. If, for example, a photo of the Secretary's working day is being taken , you need to study the instructions for working with documents. Preparation for observations is necessary in order to correctly identify the actions of the observed as a result and to understand whether they really belong to working time.
The second stage is the observations themselves. They can be carried out both continuously during the whole shift, and discretely. The second technique of working day photography is used, as a rule, for observations of workers who do not have a stationary workplace. In the process of observation, a tablet, a photo card, a stopwatch (hours) are used. To cover a large number of jobs , a photo of the working day can be held in the form of self-photo, in which workers independently take their working hours into account and record losses. Accuracy and detail of records in the photo map depends on the purpose of its conduct.
The final stage of the study is the processing of photo cards. As a result, the periods of working hours are indexed, the duration of all elements is calculated, and their summation is performed. A summary of the results obtained from several observations (to reduce the error), and data analysis, based on observation purposes. In particular, organizational and technical measures can be developed to reduce the useless use of working time, calculated the enlarged norms of time, service or production.