Euphorbia: species and their description. Euphorbia, or spurge: planting and reproduction

Euphorbia, or euphorbia, belongs to the huge family Euphorbia. These are amazing plants. The spurge is widespread all over the world. According to various sources, its species number from 800 to 1600 different plants. These are perennial and annual grasses, trees and shrubs. The fifth part of this diversity is found only in South and Central Africa.

The spurge plant also grows in the middle zone of Russia. It can be seen on roadsides, fields, banks of rivers. Many of our readers are familiar with the spurge (species that grow in the regions of Russia). And lovers of indoor plants probably know its decorative varieties.

Properties and applications

It is necessary to know that all members of this family contain milky juice, which is very poisonous. The substances contained in it can cause severe burns, severe inflammation of the mucous membranes. Once in the stomach, it can cause a violation of the functions of the digestive tract. Therefore, you should handle it very carefully and wear gloves when working with it.

The toxic properties of African milkweeds were often used by hunters who made deadly arrowheads. In addition, the plant spurge is used in folk medicine. It is used in certain kidney diseases, as an anesthetic, laxative, antihelminthic. It is used as an antacid in bites of rabid animals.

Many of our readers may have heard that in the perfumery for the manufacture of bleaching creams used spurge. The species of some plants of this family were used to produce rubber. There are varieties of milkweed that people consume and use as feed for livestock.

Euphorbia: Species

We can not even very briefly describe all species of this plant. Nevertheless, we will try to tell you about some of them.

Euphorbia "cactus"

In the habitual for us, this plant is difficult to call a cactus. In fact, it belongs to the genus Euphorbia. Its shape really reminds a cactus, but differs in that it has inflorescences and flowers. In the tissues is a lacteal juice of white color, poisonous to humans. "Cactus" -milot refers to a genus that is distinguished by a huge variety of species.

This plant has large trihedral, fleshy stems. The straight trunk, with proper care, reaches a height of 2-3 meters. Shoots are located evenly along the perimeter of the stem. On its edges are brown-red spines and dense oval-shaped leaves about 5 cm long.

There are species with jointed and covered with yellow flecked shoots. These include the following:

  • Abyssinian;
  • trihedral;
  • triangular;
  • Canarian.


Grow "cactus" -milow follows at a temperature of +18 ... +20 degrees. There are species that tolerate lower temperatures (+4 - +5). In this case it is necessary to provide the plant with sufficient amount of light and to artificially raise the temperature of the soil. The flower can be placed next to the heater.

"Cactus" -individual can not grow without light. It well tolerates direct sunlight, dry air, does not suffer from lack of watering. In winter, it is generally stopped to water and resume moistening of the soil in the period from spring to autumn.

Stem and twigs to moisten it is not necessary, because the decay may begin. Due to the fact that the plant is covered with spines, we advise you to brush the dust off it with a brush.

Framed Euphorbia

This is an annual herbaceous plant with erect, densely leafy stems. Their height reaches 70 cm. The leaves are light green, oval in shape. The white wide border, which gave the name to the plant, appears during the flowering period on the upper leaves.

Spurge fringed with large white bracts during this period looks very impressive. The bush of this plant during the flowering period resembles a large snow ball. Probably, that's why he was given other names: "mountain snow", "bride", "early snow". Flowering plants occur from mid-June and until the most frost.

Euphorb fringed love the sun. In the shade, he withers and even dies. The soil prefers loose, fertile, slightly acidified. This bush is responsive to regular fertilizing with manure, mineral fertilizers. Does not tolerate waterlogging.

It can be propagated by cuttings and seeds. Cut cuttings should be kept in warm water for 2-3 hours. This will help stop the allocation of juice, which will not allow the plant to take root. Then about a week cuttings are "wilted" in the air at a temperature of +22 degrees. After that, they can be planted in a sandy-peat soil.

Euphorbia of Pallas

Another herbaceous representative of the family is Euphorbiaceae. Has two names - the spurge of Pallas and Fisher. It has a well-developed and very powerful root system.

The stems of this milkweed reach 25 cm in height, most often they are pubescent. Leaves are dense, green in color, with a brown tinge. Their shape depends on where they are located on the stem. Flowers form umbellate inflorescences. The root of the Pallas milkweed is sinuous, thick, juicy. Flowering of the plant occurs in May.

This is an endemic plant that occurs only in China, Mongolia and Transbaikalia. Most often it can be seen on steppe slopes, rocky and stony soils.

Experts believe that the spur of Pallas - this is the famous medieval mandrake. In the directory of Tibetan medicine, which was used since Genghis Khan, there are references to this plant as a laxative and anthelmintic agent. Healers of Siberia from ancient times treated them for male diseases, tuberculosis, tumors. It was believed that its root has the ability to give vitality and prolong youth.

Healing properties

Currently, in traditional medicine, the spurge of Pallas is not used, but scientific research aimed at studying its properties and composition does not stop. For example, it has already been established that preparations containing juice from the root of the plant normalize the hormonal balance in the male body due to the content of phytoandrogens in it. In addition, there is an anticoagulant activity of this milkweed, which gives us confidence that it will soon be used in the treatment of patients who have hemocoagulation disorders.

Medicines based on this plant have a harmful effect on fungal flora, suppress the growth of tumor cells. This is due to the presence in the roots of special lactones, which are able to fight with tumor activity.

Folk doctors use drugs of the root of the Pallas mollusk in the therapy of leukemia. Chinese healers cure tuberculosis of the bone and lymphatic system. In Tibet, decoction of roots, which is prepared according to a special recipe, successfully treat anthrax. Many herbalists are advised to take the spleen of Pallas with uterine myoma and mastopathy. However, do not self-medicate, consult your doctor.


The use of this plant is undesirable in case of individual intolerance. Since it is poisonous, an overdose may lead to a loose stool with an admixture of blood, vomiting, and disturbance of the heart rhythm.

Orchard Euphorbia

It is a herbaceous annual, belonging to the family Euphorbia. Euphorbia grows up to 25 cm. Stems are thick and fleshy, creeping. Quite often they have swollen knots. Leaves up to 3 cm long, having an oblong shape. The glass is campanulate, about 1.5 cm. Inside it is short-haired, 4 nectaries on top concave, narrow. The capilliform perianth is slightly visible. Blossom this spurge in June-September.

The plant is widespread in Ukraine, in the central part of Russia, in the Upper Volga, Volga-Don, and Black Sea regions. A little less common in Belarus, in the Caucasus. It grows like a weed on the cultivated soil: in gardens, fields and orchards.

For medicinal purposes, grass, juice and plant roots are used. It has an emetic, laxative and keratoplastic action.

Milky juice is used for external purposes - to remove corns, warts, pigment spots. Medicinal preparations containing plant juice are recommended for bronchial asthma, liver cancer, stomach and uterus. The plant is an effective insecticide against insects.

Small-fruited euphorbia

A plant from the family Euphorbia growing to 80 cm in height, bare or slightly pubescent. Euphorbia small-fruited has a creeping, cord-like root. Single or small stems erect. Top have about 11 axillary peduncles to 8 cm long, sometimes they are not. Non-flowering branches are absent.

The cauline leaves are petiolate, almost sessile, 35 mm long, 9 mm wide. They can be wedge-shaped at the base, linear-spatulate, elliptical-linear, linear-filamentary.

From 4 to 12 peduncles - simple or bifid. The goblet is campanulate, in diameter about 2 mm. Outside it is bare, has rounded or fringed lobes. Blooms in late May - early July.

A threateous trichopsis is the fruit of this plant. It has a length of 3 mm, a width of 4 mm. Fruit smooth, rounded, only on the back are wrinkled-tuberculate lobes.

Seeds are small - 1.5-2 mm, ovoid, smooth, brownish or grayish-brown. Carunculus sedentary, flattened. Blooms in early June.

Euphorbia leafless

Strongly branched and low shrub with 2-3 segments. They are arcuate, light green. Each segment has a length of up to 8 cm, a thickness of 6 mm. This beautiful plant is used for both garden and home growing. In Europe, it is often bred as a room succulent.

Northern Euphorbia

Shrubby plant, which has a vertical principal root, thin, woody. Euphorbia is a shrub up to 40 cm high. It has orthotropic generative shoots. They can be simple, single or with short lateral shoots. Stems in thickness do not exceed 1.5 mm, at the base smooth, cylindrical, pinkish hue.

Lower leaves are scaly, small, brown in color. Median leaves not more than 4 cm long, 8 mm wide.

The umbilical inflorescence has from 4 to 8 simple, sometimes bipartite apical umbrellas. 4 or 5 nectaries brown, two-horned. The bars are thin - only 1.5 mm. Truncated-spherical capsules about 3 mm in length. Their diameter is 3 mm.


The flower is spurge, a photo of which can be seen in almost any edition for florists, - the culture in our country is decorative. Most often it is grown in a shtabovom form and used for greening the premises. House plant spurge is unpretentious in care and undemanding to external conditions. It can be grown even with a minimum level of illumination.

Euphorbia globose - dwarf plant not more than 8 cm high, without spines. Branches that go from the base make up fanciful globular segments that form cushions up to 30 cm in diameter. The branches can be cylindrical or spherical, their length is about 2.5 cm.

Mountain Euphorbia

Very effective ornamental-deciduous plant, which is often used in rock gardens and in compositions with stones. Euphorbia mountain has semi-growing shoots. Leaves are rhombic, dyed in a bluish-gray hue. During wintering, they tightly cover the stems. Blossoms in mid-May to early June, but flowers are not its main decorative quality.


This kind of milkweed loves the sun, but if necessary it can grow in partial shade. The soil is more suitable for light and nutritious.

Seeds should be sown in March in boxes and lightly sprinkled with earth. In the soil, seedlings are planted when a positive temperature is established.

The distance between the seedlings should be at least 30 cm. To grow the plant continuously and abundantly, it must be regularly watered, weeded, loosened and fed with mineral fertilizers.

Almond-like spurge

This variety is popular with gardeners and lovers of indoor plants. Has unusual flowers, which have a bright green color. They gather in beautiful inflorescences, which are very gracefully swaying at the slightest blow of the wind. They are located on high (up to 60 cm) stems. The plant starts in April and ends in June. Euphorbia almond is suitable for garden cultivation on a site in southern regions of Russia, as it does not like strong frosts.

Euphorbia acalifa

This plant is also called a foxtail. This is an evergreen, strongly branched bush, not very tall. Euphorbia Akalifa is a beautiful ornamental plant. Its leaves are small, ovoid in shape, with small denticles.

His gardeners loved him for unusually bright red flowers, which are collected in atypical spicery inflorescences for moloch. Tsveli Akalifa begins in March and pleases the eye until late autumn.

With proper care on the plant, about 30 flowers bloom simultaneously. At this time it needs watering and feeding. Loves a lot of light. It is best propagated by cuttings.


This is a very rare species from a large family. A low-branched shrub that grows to a height of up to 20 cm. On the stalk you can see small hillocks, arranged in the form of a spiral. Leaves appear on the top of the plant. The flowers of the milkweed are located on a long peduncle and on the top of a bush in the form of a bundle. In the winter, this kind of watering is not necessary. Propagates only by seeds.

Canary Spurge

It is a real tree that reaches 12 meters in height. It has 4-5-rib branches up to 5 cm in diameter. On the ribs there are small tubercles and double brown spines about 0.5 cm long. In the embryonic state, the leaves are rudimentary. This beautiful plant feels great in the room.

"The head of the jellyfish"

A striking succulent having a short, thickened stem and numerous branches diverging in different directions. This variety of milkweed is very popular among florists because of its attracting attention, an unusual kind. If the plant is suspended in a basket, its branches-"tentacles" will be pulled in different directions.

This spurge is undemanding to lighting, it is quite comfortable in half-shade, and in bright light. In winter it should be watered very rarely. If you do not comply with this rule, the spurge rot. In addition, he is extremely negative about drafts.

Euphorbaceous spermiform

Shrub succulent, having a height of up to one meter. The branches are erect, with fifteen ribs, a width of up to 5 cm, painted in a dark green color.

On small ribs there are small tubercles. And along the edges of the ribs are visible notched notches. The spines are gray, single. Their length is about 2 cm. The leaves are very small, not more than 3 mm. They dry up quite quickly, but in some cases they remain on the branches for several years.

Euphorbia Cereus-like is very reminiscent of cactus cereus, that's why it got that name. He loves the light, however, from direct sunlight it should be protected. Otherwise, the spurge can get burned.

Euphorbia Euphorbia

Strongly branched bush. In natural conditions it grows up to one meter in height. Stems erect, with five or nine ribs. This spurge is especially famous for its huge spines, which grow to 5 cm. At first they are reddish, later they are painted gray. Can grow in diffuse light or in partial shade. In the summer it needs watering and feeding. He needs loose soil and drainage. Propagated by cuttings.

Euphorbia large-horned

This is a large plant. Euphorbia in the nature grows up to two meters. The branches of this shrub are three-ribbed, divided into separate segments. They are wavy, pterygoid, with a gray horny margin.

At home, it can grow to the ceiling. He needs bright light and regular, but moderate watering. Propagation by cuttings, but when breeding in indoor conditions very rarely blooms.

Euphorbia large-winged

A species very close to the coarse-grained milk. Differences only in tetrahedral stem with bright green divorces and finer thorns.

Reproduction of milkweed

The spurge plant, the photo of which you can see in our article, is uncomplicated in the care. Nevertheless, certain rules need to be known. Quite often the readers ask the question: "How does the spurge multiply?" We will try to answer it.

There are several ways to multiply this plant. The most commonly used are:

  • Cuttings;
  • Leaf propagation;
  • Using seeds;
  • Division of the bush.

Growing milkweed from seeds

If you want, you can sow the seeds directly into the soil in the spring or early summer. Many gardeners prefer this way to reproduce spurge. Cultivation from seeds makes it possible to plant seedlings already in March.

Seeds should be soaked in warm water for about two hours. Remember that the roots of the milkweed are very fragile, they can not be damaged. Therefore, it is best to sow seeds one by one in peat pots or plastic cups.

About a week after sowing, the seeds are in cups (the air temperature should not be below +10 degrees). Then the cups should be rearranged to a warmer place (+20 degrees). Seeds of milkweed germinate for a long time - from 3 weeks to 2 months.

Do not forget to make a hole in the bottom of the glass, so that excess moisture drains into it. It is advisable to put agroperlit on the bottom of the dish with a small layer - about 1 cm. Then the container is filled with soil mixture, which consists of leaf land, sand and clay-sod land. The proportions 2: 2: 3 should be observed. Seeds do not go too deep into the soil.

Before their planting, the land must be moistened. Glasses with seeded seeds should be placed in a pallet where water should be poured, so that the soil does not dry up. It should not be wet, but wet.

Saplings should be accustomed to outdoor conditions (of course, if you grow a plant for a summer residence). To do this, they must be taken out on the street 10 days before planting.


Euphorbia needs moderate watering - once a week. For this purpose, it is necessary to use standing or filtered water. Take care not to dry out the top layer of the soil. Do not water the plant when the land is still wet. Overdried soil can provoke the loss of flowers and leaves. And excessive watering can cause rotting roots. In spring and autumn, the plant should be watered no more often than once every two weeks. In winter, watering is reduced to once a month. Spray the spurge is not worth it.

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