The Decembrist movement was of great social and political importance for the country. It reflected the thoughts and moods of the highly educated, advanced layers of Russian society. One of the founders of the movement was Alexander Muravyov, a general, a participant in the Patriotic War of 1812 and the Crimean Battle. His father was the founder of the Moscow educational institution for columnists. In it, and just passed training Alexander Muravyov.
The figure was born in a noble family in 1792, on October 10. Before entering the educational institution founded by the father, he received an initial home education and upbringing. In 1810, on March 1, the future Decembrist Alexander Muraviev was accepted for military service. On September 14, he received the rank of second lieutenant. In the autumn of 1810 - in the spring of 1811, he stayed on topography in the Kiev and Volyn provinces. Since March 1812, he was transferred to the First Western Army. In June, Alexander Muraviev enlisted in the fifth building.
Alexander Muravyov took part in the battle near Borodino. For bravery received the Order of St. Anne of the third degree. He also participated in the battles for Krasnoe, Maloyaroslavets, Tarutino. For his courage he received a gold sword. Alexander Muravyov participated in the foreign campaigns of 1813. He distinguished himself in the battles for Fer-Champenoise, Leipzig, Kulm, Bautzen. Since September, he was seconded to Platov's corps. In 1813, on March 16, he was awarded the title of Lieutenant, November 2 - Captain-Captain.
In 1814, he was transferred to the General Staff of the Guard. In the same year, in August, Alexander Muravyov received the rank of captain, March 7, 1816 - Colonel. At the First Reserve-Cavalry Corps was the Chief Quartermaster. In the years 1817-1818. Was the chief of staff of the Guards detachment during the period of the unit's stay in Moscow. On the orders of Alexander 1 in 1818, on January 6, was arrested for malfunctioning non-commissioned officers during the parade. Alexander Muravyov resigned in protest. In early October 1818, he was dismissed from service.
At the end of 1810, Alexander Muravyov became a member of the Masonic lodge "Elizabeth to Virtue." In 1814 he joined the organization in France. Since 1816, Mr .. was a member of the "Three Virtues". In the period from June 1817 to August 1818 he was the local master of the lodge. In addition, Muravyov was in the "Sacred Artel". He also became the founder of the "Union of Salvation". Participated in the "Military Society". Until 1819 he was part of the "Union of Welfare". Participated in the compilation of the Green Book. In 1819 he left the organization.
Arrest and punishment
Muravyov was taken into custody in the estate of his wife in the village. Botov in 1826, on the 8th of January. Five days later he was taken to St. Petersburg to the main guardhouse. Since January 14, he stayed in the Peter and Paul Fortress. In early July 1826 he was convicted according to the VI category and exiled to Siberia without deprivation of the nobility and ranks. His wife decided to go after him. At the end of August 1826, Muravyov arrived in Yalutorovsk. After the time, at the request of Mother in Law, Princess Shakhovskaya, he was changed to the place of exile and sent to Verkhneudinsk. At the end of January 1827, he arrived in the city. There he applied for civil service. The petition was granted. In late November, the couple had a daughter, but she died at the age of five.
At the end of January 1828, Muravyov was appointed a governor in Irkutsk. In this position he officially entered the end of April. At the beginning of July 1831, he was appointed chairman of the provincial government with the construction of a state councilor in the rank. In late June next year he received a post in Tobolsk. Since October 30, 1832 he was a civil governor. In 1834, a conflict arose between Muravyov and Velyaminov (Governor-General of Western Siberia). As a result, the first was transferred to Vyatka, where he was chairman of the Criminal Chamber. But at the end of 1834 the successor of Veliyaminov wished to return Muravyov back to Tobolsk.
At the end of May 1835, he was appointed chairman of the Taurida Chamber of Criminal Cases. In 1837, he quarreled with Count Vorontsov and in early November was transferred to the Arkhangelsk Province. Two years later, in connection with the unrest of the peasants in the Izhma Volost, he was dismissed from his post as governor. From the middle of April 1843, Muravyov served in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In mid-February 1846 he joined the Council of Ministers, carried out audits of various provinces. In 1848, on September 18, he was appointed an actual state councilor.
Return to military service
In May 1851, Mr .. entered the General Staff in the rank of colonel. Muravyov was enlisted in the military service on a personal petition. In the summer of 1854 he was seconded to Poland. In August 1854 he served under the General Staff of the acting army. At the end of March 1855, promoted to the rank of Major-General, and from the end of July this year sent on leave for the treatment of cataracts.
Alexander Muravyov died in 1863, on December 18, in Moscow. The body was buried in the Novodevichy Convent. According to historical evidence, in 1920 the cross disappeared from the grave. Subsequently, the burial place was lost. In 1930 the cemetery was liquidated. The fence with the sign was moved from the northern part of the Volkonsky mausoleum to the burial of Trubetskoi. According to historical evidence, the grave of Muravyov's father was also destroyed. In 1979, a monument was erected over the alleged burial site.
In the same historical period, lived in Russia and another Alexander Muravyov - Decembrist, cornet. He was born in 1802, on March 19. The middle name of this Muraveva is Mikhailovich. In the early years he received excellent home education and upbringing. After a while he became a listener of lectures of leading scientific figures, he was actively engaged in self-education. Muravyov paid much attention to the works of the Enlighteners of France. In early April 1824 was a cornet of the Cavalry Regiment.
Participation in clandestine organizations
At the age of 17-18 years, he joined the "Union of Welfare". Since 1824, Mr .. was a member of the Northern Society. This period includes his acquaintance with Naryshkin, Trubetskoi, Obolensky. Muravyov participated in many meetings of the society, he knew all the plans of activity. He spoke with active support for the draft constitution advanced by his brother. Since 1825, Muravyov has been given the right to enlist new members in the society. During this period Suvorov, Vyazemsky, Gorozhansky, Chernyshev, Sheremetyev, Koloshin, etc. took part in the organization. On 14 December Muravyov participated in the meeting at Ryleev's apartment. On the day of the uprising, he persuaded the cavalrymen not to swear allegiance to Nicholas. Muravyov was arrested on December 19 in his mother's apartment.
Conclusion and reference
In 1825, on December 25, Alexander Mikhailovich Muravyov was placed in the Revel fortress, and on April 30 of the following year - transferred to Petropavlovskaya. By the verdict, all ranks and nobles were deprived. He was exiled to penal servitude, having been sentenced to 15 years. In early December 1826, together with his brother, Thorson and Annenkov was sent to Siberia. First he served his sentence in Nerchinsk in mines, then was transferred to Petrovsky plant. In 1832, Muravyov was released from work. Not wishing to part with his brother, he continued to work at the Petrovsky factory. In 1844 he received permission to enter the service in the provincial government of Tobolsk. In September 1853 he was allowed to return to the European part of the country. However, on November 14 of the same year, Muravyov died in Tobolsk. The body was buried in the Zavalny cemetery.
Alexandra Muravyeva - wife of the Decembrist
She was the daughter of Count Chernyshev, who served as a real secret counselor. I got a wonderful education. February 22, 1823, she became the wife of the Decembrist Nikita Muravyov (elder brother of Alexander Mikhailovich). When the husband was arrested, she waited for the third child. In 1826, October 26, received permission to follow him to penal servitude.
Muravyova was one of the first wives of the Decembrists, who left for her husband in hard labor. She possessed boundless sincerity and a gentle attitude to her family. She died at a young age - at 27 years - at the Petrovsky factory. This death was the first in the circle of the Decembrists. At the request of her husband, a chapel was built over the grave. At the same place, two daughters were later buried. The chapel was preserved in the city of Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky. She is in the old cemetery.