Agriculture in Eastern Siberia is represented by the agro-industrial complex, which includes livestock, crop production, various types of fisheries and fishing. Two-thirds of farmland falls on hayfields and pastures, so meat production is flourishing here. In addition, in Tuva, Buryatia and the Chita region, meat and sheep breeding and beef cattle breeding are developed. In the agriculture of Eastern Siberia, a quarter of the able-bodied population of this region is employed. Agriculture here specializes in cereals: oats, barley, spring wheat, as well as forage crops.
The agriculture of Western Siberia differs due to other climatic conditions from the agro-technical complex of Eastern Siberia. In this region, the leading role is played by reindeer herding, fur trade and fishing, as the conditions for agriculture are extremely unfavorable in the tundra and forest zones of this region. But the south of Western Siberia is one of the main grain areas of the country; They also breed sheep, cattle and poultry. Mountain Altai specializes in sheep breeding on reindeer herding, as well as the breeding of yaks and goats.
The geography of agriculture dictates different conditions and priorities in the directions of this type of activity. The agriculture of Eastern Siberia provides its products, sometimes already processed, not only their own region, but also other parts of the country.
The main agricultural zone of this region belongs to the subtaiga and forest-steppe landscapes, and sometimes coincides with the industrial belt, stretching along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Agriculture in Eastern Siberia represents the main areas of agriculture in this geographical area.
The main grain crop (up to 75%) is wheat. Selection of other sowing crops is determined by the peculiarities of natural climatic conditions. So, a small amount of snow in winter does not give an opportunity to plant winter crops, therefore, basically, all the sown areas of this region are occupied by spring crops. Agriculture of Eastern Siberia in its main areas is significantly different from Western Siberia due to the climate's peculiarity, and even rye in this region is cultivated in the form of a kind of form - a daisy.
From the well-developed agricultural zone to the south and north, the regions stretch, where the agriculture of Eastern Siberia specializes in animal husbandry. The supply of livestock in this region is much higher than in other areas, as well as in the country.
Mainly meat and dairy and meat cattle breeding is developed here. In addition, some areas of Eastern Siberia specialize in fine-wooled and semi-fine-wool sheep breeding (especially in Buryatia and the Chita region). In addition, in some areas of Yakutia is herd horse breeding. Here, the taste of horse meat is appreciably higher than beef, and koumiss is considered a traditional drink of the Yakuts.
Reindeer husbandry is well developed in the far north of Eastern Siberia.
In addition to animal husbandry, the abundance of rivers and lakes in this region makes it possible to expand fishing industries, and the expanses of the East Siberian taiga allow the development of hunting and fur farming. But in order to restore and restore the reserves of flora and fauna, a strictly scientific approach to these types of fisheries is required, and in this respect, the main role is assigned to biogeographers.
In the agriculture of Eastern Siberia, the richness of the flora of this region is of no small importance: the plant resources are represented here by berries, mushrooms, and pine nuts. This type of fishery is an important part in the life of the local population, not only rural, but also urban. Indeed, during the ripening of pine nuts, many residents of this region go to the taiga to collect cones, which can last from two weeks to a month.