Law, State and Law
A mixed republic is a concept and a characteristic
The state, as a legal mechanism, has a number of characteristics, among which the form of government is particularly distinguished. This category implies the presence of two major sections - monarchies and republics.
The category "Republic", in turn, is divided into parliamentary, presidential and mixed. A mixed republic is an ambiguous form of government, the study of which requires special attention. And in order to understand what it is, it is necessary to consider its main features and species.
What is a mixed republic?
The Republic, as a form of government, is determined by the power of the people of the country mediated by power . This means that all the supreme bodies of state power (Parliament and President) are elected by the citizens of the country. However, depending on who forms the government, the type of the republic also depends. Among them is a mixed republic.
This category is most typical for the states of the transitional political regime, but it can also occur in countries with stable democratic traditions.
The most characteristic features of a mixed republic are:
- Election by direct popular vote of both the President and the Parliament.
- The legislative body and the head of state are endowed with almost equal powers in governing the country.
- The government gives a report to the parliament, but bears full responsibility for its actions to the President, who is actually the head of the executive body.
- The role of the Prime Minister is limited to the implementation of management orders from the president.
- The presence of a mechanism of "checks and balances", in which the parliament has the right to dismiss the government, in turn, the elected head of state - in response to express a vote of no confidence and dissolve the legislature. Moreover, the government resigns only together with the prime minister, but not with the president.
- The Constitutional Court acts as an arbiter in relations between these two supreme bodies of state power.
Depending on how the powers of the president and parliament are distributed, there are two types of mixed republics - semi-presidential and semi-parliamentary.
The semi-presidential mixed republic , exemplified by the classical functioning of France and Poland, is based on the president's enhanced role in government. According to some authors, this species is most typical for countries where the role of the head of state as the leader of the nation is great and in which the processes of transition from a parliamentary republic to a classical presidential one are noticeable. It should be noted that this form of government is inherent in the CIS countries, for example, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus, Ukraine.
The semi-parliamentary mixed republic is most typical for countries where the processes of "promoting a strong parliament" and forming a parliamentary republic are taking place. In this case, the legislature is given a certain form of a vote of no confidence: the nomination of a vote to an individual minister (Uruguay) or prime minister, indicating a possible successor (Germany).
Thus, a mixed republic is a special transitional form of government characterized by a gradual strengthening of the parliament or the president. Sometimes this form of government is mistakenly attributed to mixed (or atypical) forms of government.
Mixed forms of government .
As noted earlier, the form of government has two main types - the monarchy and the republic. However, the diversity of state formations and the historically developed manner of management distinguish a special form-mixed forms of government. They include monarchies with republican elements and republics with monarchical features.
The monarchy with the republican elements is of the following types:
- Elective monarchy - in this case, the ruler is elected according to the principle of rotation. An example is the United Arab Emirates and Malaysia.
- Constitutional monarchy , in which the monarch inherits his power and is a representative of the state, and public authorities are elected by the people - for example, Britain, Japan, Sweden can serve. However, the selection of this type in the form of a mixed form of government is very controversial.
The republic with monarchical elements is represented by the following list:
- The superpresidential - the head of state de facto has the powers of the monarch in absolute monarchy. An example is North Korea
- The Islamic Republic - elements of monarchism incarnate in disobeying the head of spiritual power to the will of the people. The most vivid example is Iran
The mixed republic, examples and characteristics of which were presented above, is a special form of governing the country, allowing without special civil shocks to move from one type of government to another. At the same time, the constitutional mechanisms operating in the state ensure legality and legitimacy of the transition.