A great number of animals surround a person. Hornets are very familiar to us, but people do not like them. This insect causes fear, and at times panic and horror. It is capable of attacking a person and hurting him. Hornet's poison can cause a strong allergic reaction, and multiple bites can be fatal. If an anaphylactic shock occurs, immediate medical attention should be provided. At the same time, the hornet is useful. These individuals are wonderful architects and builders! The whole question is, how do we relate to them.
Hornets - common insects
People call them pirates. Other names are "winged corsairs", "flying tigers". This is the biological classification of hornets:
- Class of insects (Insecta);
- A group of Hymenoptera;
- Family of folded winged paper wasps (Vespidae).
The world has twenty-three types of hornets and many of their subspecies. In some European countries, they are under state protection. So, for example, in Germany for the destruction of nests of such insects a fine of 50 thousand euro is provided. A common hornet is inhabited by numerous colonies or families, which include: female, males and working individuals. By the end of August - beginning of September, the colony can reach 400-800 pieces.
There may be several females in the family, but the hornet's horn is only one. In order to prevent mating and the deposition of fertilized eggs by other females, the main uterus secretes a special odor (Pheromone), and the infertile lays unfertilized, from which only drones hatch. Hornets settle in earthen nests, choose for a dwelling a hollow of a tree, a place under round roofs, on fences. Nests they make with the help of saliva, chewing wood. The first spring generations consist of working hornets. Autumn is females and males. Only the fetuses remain for the winter. They go into hibernation.
The hornet is destroyed by the blow of the sting. Another way is to break the victim with his jaws to pieces. The food of predators is different insects, including night. Caught by a bee horn kills at once and sucks. The breast of the victim carries into the nest for feeding its brood.
For a day a large family of winged predators catches up to 500 or more grams of insects. In the garden and garden, hornets are very useful!
They feed on the juice of ripe fruits, trees and nectar of easily accessible flowers.
Protein food is necessary for the uterus for debilitating labor - deposition of eggs. Hornets almost do not sleep, only freeze for half a minute about 20-25 times per night and do not move.
Dimensions and description
The front half of the breast of the uterus is yellow. The head has the same color. The first two rings are dark brown with yellow stripes, the rest are yellow with brown spots. From 25 to 35 millimeters has the length of the horny uterus. The size of males and workers is smaller.
The uterus and working individuals have a sting - this is a modified ovipositor. In the upper part of the head on the sides there are three simple large facetted eyes. They are reddish-orange in the hornet, and the incision resembles the letter C. The mouthpiece of the gnawing type is provided with very strong mandibles. The body is covered with hairs. For the development of ovaries and the production of eggs, the hornet needs a protein-rich diet. For successful hibernation in August-September, the uterus feeds and stores so-called fatty body.
Life cycle and features of the existence of a family of hornets
In the spring, at the end of May, after the hibernation, the uterus wakes up. She makes reconnaissance flights in search of a place to establish a nest. Finding the right one, he puts the first hexagonal honeycombs and places them next. Soon each cell will be laid on the egg, and after 8 days in them will develop larvae, and after 12-15 of them, as a result of metamorphosis, a hornet will appear.
Before the breeding of the offspring begins, the hornet determines and intentionally lays eggs, from which drones or future uterus hatch. This is controlled by the return of the sperm.
By mid-June, the building of the nest will be occupied by workers, and the uterus will only lay eggs.
Since September there are young individuals. Since that time, the old hornet of the hornet is in disregard. Her ability to carry eggs is weakened significantly, and those that are produced - in a few minutes are eaten by female workers. So the uterus leaves the hive and dies at the age of about one year.
Workers feed passive females and males. Absorbing a large number of proteins and carbohydrates, the young womb is stockpiled with the necessary reserves for a prolonged wintering. Uneducated cocoons are eaten by workers and drones.
In autumn, mating takes place. Uterus may be fertilized several times. Males die in two weeks. Fertilized uterus is looking for a sheltered shelter for wintering. There comes diapause.
In early November, the last of the working individuals die. The signs of life disappear in the hive. Most of the young queens will not survive in winter.
Hornets - builders and architects
When a nest of hornets settles, insects use rotten wood. It is to be chewed and mixed with saliva. From the received substance honeycombs are constructed. The nest shell also consists of it. Glue is also a saliva. The dried surface is an analog of corrugated paper. The color depends on the type of wood. The nest is not used for the second year. After winter, in the spring, the uterus finds a convenient place for a new nest. To the ceiling she attaches a small foot. The first honeycombs are made on it. Expansion of the dwelling always occurs from the top down, the chute is in the lower part. The large nest of hornets has 6 tiers. The largest dimensions reach a diameter of half a meter.
Just like other insects, hornets can unite with a whole nest and sting the enemy for self-defense. It is very dangerous! Sensing a threat, the hornet releases an alarm pheromone. This substance activates the brethren for an attack. Do not kill the hornet next to the nest. Distress signals can raise the whole family to take revenge on the offender.
The trigger signal for the attack can serve as a variety of materials, for chemical properties that can come into contact with pheromone, including clothing, skin, seasonings to food.
In scientific Latin, hornet is an insect, designated as Vespa - "wasp". Vespula - means the usual genus of wasps (literally translated as "axis"). In science there is a clear classification of this type of insect, but in real life there is confusion when distinguishing between large hornets and other representatives. These wasps are smaller and have a bright yellow with a black color, while a hornet is an insect of a darker color.
There are large wasps called hornets. A special place among them is spotted Dolichovespula Maculata. It lives in North America. In English it is called Bald-faced hornet, as well as real hornets. It has a black color and ivory stripes. Most likely, hornets of wasps are called because of their habit to create above-ground nests. There is also an Australian hornet Abispa Ephippium - a kind of a single wasp.
Benefit or still harm?
In the literature about the forest, the hornet is often presented as a dirty fish, which must be rendered harmless, as it gnaws at the thin bark of trees. Because of this, branches are formed that are twisted by rings, which die off. This damage, in comparison with that caused by other wild animals, is very insignificant. In the garden or garden is good to have a nest of hornets! An interesting fact: for one day a large family of predatory insects can destroy more than five hundred grams of harmful insects. They catch live prey and very rarely take carrion!
But these are the main natural enemies for ordinary bee workers. A gluttonous large hornet and its giant cousins fly to the bee nests in order to feast on their honey with the larvae. Among the known cases: thirty large hornets destroyed 3 thousand bees in an hour and a half. Their horns are crushed by powerful jaws. Bees, too, have developed ways of protecting: carbon dioxide and heat. Getting into the "bee ball" with a high temperature, the hornet will kill the toilers in ten minutes. In addition, the concentration of carbon dioxide sharply increases in the sphere.
How to get rid of hornets on the backyard?
Unlike other wasps, hornets are difficult to lure with honey baits or jam. Begin the struggle in early spring. At this time the wasps are in the initial stage of erection of their nests. First of all, they inspect all buildings, especially those that are rarely visited.
The nests found are sprayed with potent insecticides, and then removed and burned. When they are big - it's difficult. Effectively poisoned with pesticides bait from meat and fish minced meat, which hornets are often used for feeding larvae. They are placed in places inaccessible to pets. Adult insects make various sweet traps, especially with beer or fermented kvass.
Why and what is dangerous hornet
For humans, the poison of most hornets is less toxic than bees. After the injection, the stinger remains in the wound. But this insect can be hurt several times in a row. Deadly properties of the poison is due to the content of high-concentration mandorotoxin and toxic substances that cause destruction of the tissues of the human body.
If the hornet has released a lot of poison, there will be a serious inflammatory reaction. What is dangerous for a hornet for a person? With high individual sensitivity, the consequences can be very severe. If there were a lot of jabs, as happens with a disturbed nest of hornets, a fatal outcome is possible. Japan has unhappy statistics: annually, having received a bite of a giant hornet, about forty people die. The poison of Asian individuals is highly toxic. European specimens are smaller and not as poisonous. On a special scale of painfulness of the Schmidt bites, the pain from hurting is roughly comparable to that of the honey bee and is located at the middle level of the scale, as moderately strong.
As a rule, fears of a hornet are exaggerated: its bite is disproportionate to the size of an insect.