Types of single-component sentences, their meaning, grammatical basis
A sentence is the smallest communicative unit, a group of words that are combined both in meaning and grammatically. Proposals are characterized by information fullness, semantic completeness, intonational completeness. In writing, such a design, unlike other syntactic units, is formed with a punctuation mark: a question mark or an exclamation point, a dot, or less often an ellipsis.
Depending on the parameters under consideration, proposals can be divided into views. For example, on the purpose of utterance they are divided into interrogative, motivational, narrative. By emotional coloring - to exclamation / non-exclamation.
If we consider sentences from the point of view of the grammatical basis, then we can single out one-part sentences, the kinds of which depend on the presence of a principal term, and two-part constructions. In such there is a subject and a predicate.
What is the difference between single-component structures and two-part structures?
All kinds of single-component sentences are a specific semantic-structural type. The only major term in them at a time fixes the producer of the action, the phenomenon, the object or state and indicates its existence in reality. Along the way, sentences formulate the meaning of objective modality and syntactic time. Simply put, the only major member is enough to organize the proposal independently. Blue. Splash of water. It's getting dark. In the distance sing a song.
The types of single-component sentences and their classification depend on the meaning of the design and the way in which its principal term is expressed. There are two large groups: structures with only a subject and constructions with a single predicate.
The types of a single-composition proposal, in which the basis is represented by a subject, are called nominative (naming, nominal). Their semantic purpose - informing that the object (phenomenon) exists, has a place to be. Such structures mean only real grammatical time. That is why the subject can be expressed:
- A noun (possibly a substantivized adjective) or a pronoun only in the nominative (direct) case. The boundless, breathtaking blue of the sky. Here I am;
- Phrase, which includes part of the speech in the nominative case. The number of people impressed him. Pupils. Foreigners invited to the reception. Servicemen from the neighboring unit.
In turn, call letters can be divided into:
- Indicative. Here is the book for you;
- Existential. Surprised faces of those who meet;
- Estimated-name. Here's a feast for you;
- Desirable-name. Not that!
Types of single-sentence sentences only with a predicate are divided into:
- Definitely-personal. I go, I sing, I'm not afraid of anything;
- Indefinitely-personal. The house was built quickly;
- Generalized-personal. Harvest is harvested in autumn;
- Impersonal. It's brightening. Getting cold.
Specific-personal express the condition or action of immediate participants. I read and I am surprised. Write carefully, do not rush. Tomorrow you will go to school. Today we will go to the theater. The predicate is expressed by the verb 1 or 2 persons.
In indefinite-personal verbs-predicates are used in the 3rd person plural. The producer of an action is only conceived, and the action that is more important for this message is called. A beautiful song was sung in the distance.
General-personal constructions imply that the action is performed by all or most. The predicates in them are expressed in verbs in any form (except for the infinitive). Do not bend over - you can not lift the mushroom. Business before pleasure. With skill they are not born, but they are proud of their craftsmanship. Well, how not to rejoice at your success?
Impersonal syntactic structures denote a state in which there can not be a producer. It was getting dark. In the eyes darkened. Cold. The verbs in them are verbs 3 persons of the singular, the word "no", a bunch of "adverb + infinitive", participle, infinitive. Such types of single-component proposals, unlike others, have a shade of passivity or inertia.