The history of the Russian state is full of events of various kinds. The most significant left a trace not only in the annals, but also in monuments of architecture and art, studying which you can walk through all the milestones of the formation of our Motherland. Until today, people's interest in the life and life of the emperors and kings of the Romanov dynasty is ineradicable. The period of their rule is surrounded by luxury, the splendor of palaces with beautiful gardens and magnificent fountains. The beginning was laid in the XVII century, when the young king Mikhail Romanov moved to live in the royal chambers of the Moscow Kremlin. They were not as gorgeous as today, and they were not always the place of actual residence of crowned people, but at the present time they are a monument to the greatness of Russian rulers.
The troubled times brought Russia a lot of upheavals and adversities, without the firm ruling hand of the monarch the country was torn by contradictions. The history of the Romanovs as kings begins in 1613, at which time the Zemsky Sobor nominates the most suitable candidate for the throne. Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov, from the point of view of many contemporaries, was the most acceptable candidate. He came from rich boyars, was a relative of the last tsar of the Rurikovich family, who did not leave direct heirs, and was a person who did not participate in the race for power, ie, he maintained neutrality. The age of the future sovereign was also taken into account, which allowed him to manipulate them easily enough to achieve political goals. In fact, the young king was intimidated by the persecution and disgrace of Boris Godunov; at his age of 16 he was a painful and weak-willed man who obediently obeyed the will of his mother and father. Since the election, Mikhail Fedorovich has moved to the royal chambers, which during his reign are rebuilding almost from scratch. Many of the buildings erected for Ivan III, at that time were virtually destroyed. In the 17th century, the Moscow Kremlin was the royal palace, which became the seat of the entire political and economic life of the state.
The royal chambers
Everyone understands and represents life and life of the royal family in different ways. All Russian people are sure that the person ruling the country should occupy the royal chambers. The meaning of the word and its definition always go to an excellent degree. This is not just housing for a group of people - this is the largest, tallest, nicely decorated room where the sovereign works and rests. There is some truth in this: the royal palace should reflect the greatness of the whole state, be its card business, since it is the place where foreign envoys are received. In the XVII century the Moscow Kremlin is a city within the city. There live and work hundreds of people, there are numerous houses of court nobles, churches, monasteries, ministries. Such a number of people need to supply everything necessary and maintain a huge administrative apparatus in working condition, therefore, the royal chambers are neighbors with workshops, kitchens, stables, cellars and even gardens and gardens. Of course, the perimeter of the Kremlin was guarded with special care, the simple passer-by did not pass, and petitioners who came from all over the country, patiently waited for their turn outside its walls. If we proceed from a literal translation, the residential buildings, high (2-3 floors), stone structures were called just like the royal chambers. The meaning of the word in Russian, with reference to the territory of the Moscow Kremlin, covers not a single room, but a large territory with an expanded functional that is divided into separate sectors used for its intended purpose. For example, the Terem Palace served as a bedchamber, a throne room, various entrance buildings and had its own church and a temple. Each type of premises had its own name and purpose: the Faceted Chamber, the Patriarchal Palace, and so on.
Russian architects of the XVII century. (Konstantinov, Ogurtsov, Ushakov, Shaturin) created a unique pearl in the ensemble of the entire Moscow Kremlin. The Terem Palace was built using the preserved fragments of the previous structure, which explains the stepped structure of the building. Later this style was often used in the history of the development of Russian architecture. The exterior decoration of the palace looks great: white stone platbands, multi-colored tiles with elements of heraldic drawings, decorative pilasters, special attention is drawn to the unique decorative carvings. The second floor of the Terem Palace is reserved for the royal chambers. Photos of modern (restored) interiors are not able to convey the richness of the decoration of the rooms. The walls and arches of each chamber are in a single color and painted with decorative ornaments. In 1636 the construction work at the Terem Palace ends, but later other rooms are added to it, which do not spoil the general appearance of the building. In the year of the completion of the work on the male half of the palace, the Church of the Savior (the Verkhospasskiy Sobor) is created, separated from the Terem Palace by a gilded grid. The most ancient structure of the complex is the Nativity of the Mother of God Church (on Senyah), dating from the 14th century. It was rebuilt several times, but it has survived to this day. All churches - the Resurrection of the Speaker, Catherine and Crucified - are harmoniously entered into the ensemble of the Terem Palace. Unique icons, made on silk fabric, and unique murals give the cult buildings an original appearance.
The highest part of the Terem Palace, from which the amazing view of Moscow opens, was built for the children of Mikhail Fedorovich - there they had to study. Teremok is located above the throne chamber of the sovereign. The room is spacious, bright, with benches along the walls. It served also for the meetings of the Boyar Duma, and was sometimes used as a royal cabinet. Teremok around the perimeter is surrounded by open galleries for walks: from the end of the building are large full-fledged sites, and the long side is narrow passages that are equipped with only low parapets. From here the whole building, as well as the whole ancient city, could be seen in the palm of your hand. The goldsmith's house was built in 1637, it is a unique creation of Russian architects. The room is very richly decorated, but it is cozy and warm, large windows let in a lot of light, colored mica stones created a whimsical game of various colors. The cornice of the roof is decorated with an openwork metal grille, the window frames are covered with elaborate white stone carving (as in the "adult" part of the chambers), which on each window is different. Birds, flowers, animals, various fruits and fairy-tale characters decorate the reliefs, symbolizing the diversity and richness of the surrounding world. The Western portal, open for review, is decorated with a blackboard that contains an inscription about the ownership of the data by the choir to the tsar's children, Tsarevich Alexei Mikhailovich and Ivan Mikhailovich. Between the text and along the edges of the relief there is a drawing, which helps awaken interest in learning and games in the indicated room. The image, from the point of view of modern man, looks naive and unpretentious, but the skill of its creators is difficult to overestimate. Describe the Golden-Haired Teremok endlessly, and the main theses will be: bright, warm, lively, gorgeous.
Probably, in the construction of the tower architects implied the physical elevation of the sovereign over his lands. The tsar looked at the city from its highest point (if not to take into account the bell tower of Ivan the Great), ie, was between God and people, which allowed him to assess the situation and make decisions of a large scale. For the inquisitive Tsarevich Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, this height seemed fully developed. Therefore, the "tower" was attached to the tower from the eastern part. The floor level of this small structure coincided with the roof of the highest point of the Terem Palace. Construction was carried out later, which is why the eastern portal of the tower was not available for review, although it was originally decorated as beautifully as the western portal. From the turret the best view was opened, but, probably, the princes liked to be above the father and all the noble boyars who occupied their room for a short time. It was possible to get there in two ways: through the Golden-domed Teremok, which was connected by a white stone staircase to the porch of the turret, forming a course from the eastern portal, or directly from the lower chambers. In this case, the visitor got into a small vestibule next to the theater and from there, through the open space, reached the hall, from which he could go up to the room in question.
The Patriarch's Chambers
The housewarming party was celebrated in the middle of 1655, the whole Romanov family came to see him. Patriarch Nikon wished that his premises were kept in the most saturated tones. The chambers are built in a more classical, "simple" style, but this is considerably compensated by the richness of the decor of the building and the riot of colors of the temple of the Twelve Apostles adjoining the east. The third floor with small rooms was completed only by the end of the XVII century. A few white-stone fenders, allowing to go out to open galleries, gilded fishnet skates, magnificent frescos gave the Patriarch's chambers a solemn appearance. Especially shaded gilded magnificence pink color, in which Nikon ordered to paint the walls of their apartments. The modern kind of chambers leaves a feeling of some kind of understatement, perhaps the project was not fully implemented.
The Lovely Palace
The Romanovs' chambers, for all their splendor and spaciousness, could not accommodate the whole family. Therefore, in 1651 - on the orders of the new Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich - the construction of a new building, which is intended for the residence of the father of his wife (father-in-law) ID Miloslavsky, begins on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin. It is worth noting an amazing feature of the building - it was the first Moscow "skyscraper", since it consisted of four floors. Already in the middle of the XVII century there was a shortage of areas for building. Inside the first floor was a through passage 30 meters long. Above the living rooms for the convenience of the owner was built a church of the Praise of the Virgin with belfries, the altar of which was carried outside the palace with the help of brackets. He hung over the Kremlin street, so all church canons were observed. Miloslavsky lived in this house for 16 years, after which the palace moved to the state coffers. The name "Amusing" he received later, in 1672, under Fyodor Alexandrovich Romanov, when the sisters of the sovereign moved to him. The rooms for the amusements of the royal court (fun) were used: the first theatrical performances were staged here, from where the name came from. For the convenience of the royal family, Teremna and Poteshny Palace were connected by closed crossings.
Charge in Moscow
One of the most ancient districts of Moscow, which runs between the barbaric street and the river, is a historical monument only by its location. On this site there are unique buildings of Russian architecture - churches, temples and cathedrals erected in the XIV-XVIII centuries. But the largest tourist popularity Zaryadye in Moscow received as the birthplace of the Romanov family, Russian kings. The name of the territory came from the word "row", referring to the trading rows that extended to the Red Square. Unfortunately, the monument did not reach our days in its original form, only the chambers remained. The remaining elements of the house and yard can be judged from the surviving descriptions of the everyday life of the boyar family. According to legend, the first Russian tsar from the house of the Romanovs was born in the house on Varvarka, which was built by his grandfather. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the chambers were devastated by the archers on the orders of the tsar, later suffered repeatedly from fires and all kinds of re-planning for monasteries and churches. The museum was organized on this site only at the direction of Alexander II, in the middle of the XIX century. The history of the Romanovs began here. According to the structure of the room, the chambers had a fairly standard appearance of the houses of that time. The underground part was occupied by cellars and storerooms, there was also a kitchen, or a kitchen. The living quarters were located higher: the library, the study room, and the room for the older children were reserved for men. The female half of the house was more spacious, with bright rooms for needlework, and the boyar daughters were engaged in spinning and sewing along with maidens. The jewelry, utensils, furniture, sewing, household items that have survived to this day amaze with simplicity and refinement of furnish. The Romanovs' Chambers in Zariadye are called the "old sovereign court".
The Tsar's Chamber Gatchina
Later buildings erected by order of the royal family continue to amaze with their size and magnificence. Only from the XVIII-XIX century they are called not palaces, but palaces. For example, Gatchina. This palace was built at the direction of Catherine II for her favorite Grigory Orlov. This place and the project of the future complex was chosen by them together, the construction was officially completed in 1781, although the disgraced Earl had entered it earlier. In 1883, after the death of Orlov, Catherine redeemed the palace from his heirs for Paul I. Each of the Romanov family perfected this ensemble for their own needs and rebuilt it taking into account the new technical achievements of mankind. At present, this monument of architecture and history is in a state of restoration. The palace suffered very badly from the hands of the fascists during the Great Patriotic War, some of the exhibits were taken to Germany.
Since Peter I, all the emperors of Russia have left their mark in the history of the formation of the modern appearance of the city of Pushkin, or rather, its unique architectural and park facilities. Before the Bolsheviks came to power, this place was known as Tsarskoe Selo. Alexander Palace, as well as Catherine, along with the adjacent territories and buildings, are real works of art! On the territory of the modern museum there are all directions of artistic styles - from the luxury of Russian baroque to classicism and more modern trends of the 20th century. Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo allows you to feel the spirit of several eras of the Romanov dynasty. Catherine the Great, Elizabeth, Alexander I - all left their mark in the development of the external appearance and inner content of the palace. No less important for the integrity of the perception is the park area adjacent to the ensemble, which was created for each structure individually. The era of the reign of Alexander I, Nicholas II (the last Russian emperor) is connected with the Alexander (New Tsarskoselsky) palace. From a historical and architectural point of view, these objects are no less important than the Kremlin Palace. Photos, video materials, permanent excursions to all places of stay at the Romanovs' home are in constant demand both within our country and among many foreigners.