Stylistics is ... Stylistics of English. Stylistics in Russian

Stylistics - what is it? The answer to this question will be obtained from the materials of the article. In addition, we will tell you about which categories and sections of stylistics exist in Russian, we will consider in detail the styles and techniques of English.

General information

Stylistics is a section of linguistics, or a philological discipline that studies completely different conditions and principles for choosing linguistic communication, as well as methods for organizing linguistic units. In addition, the section defines the differences in the presented principles, the ways of using styles.

There is a following division of such philological discipline as stylistics: it is literary and linguistic sections. However, it should be noted that the named subtypes are not officially recognized.

Thus, the linguistic section of stylistics considers all the functional styles of speech, while the literary study studies plots, the system of images, the plot, etc., in a separate work taken.

One can not help saying that the practical style of the Russian language is closely connected with other sections of the course of this school subject. In connection with this, it will not be possible to study it separately from grammar and theoretical lexicology. After all, they serve as a kind of basis for the characterization of linguistic means.

Main Categories

Now you know what stylistics is. This is a special section of linguistics that has the following categories:

  • Style rules;
  • style;
  • Stylistic norm;
  • Stylistic coloring of language units;
  • Correlation of methods of linguistic expression.

Main sections

The main sections of the discipline are:

  • Text style;
  • Theoretical stylistics;
  • Stylistics of language units (or so-called resource stylistics);
  • Practical stylistics;
  • Stylistics of varieties of Russian language use (or the so-called functional section).

Linguistic Stylistics

As it was said above, the stylistics in the Russian language is unofficially divided into literary and linguistic. The latter is a whole science of speech styles. She studies various possibilities of language, namely: expressive, communicative, evaluative, cognitive, emotional and functional. Let's consider it in more detail. After all, it is this opportunity of the Russian language that is given most of the time in the high school program.

Functional speech styles

Russian stylistics clearly formulates the requirements for literate speech. In this regard, it is extremely important to know that our native language has five main styles, namely:

  • scientific;
  • colloquial;
  • Journalistic;
  • Official-business;
  • art.

To have an idea of each, consider them in more detail.

Scientific style

This style of speech is characterized by a number of features such as monologic character, preliminary thinking, strict selection of linguistic devices and utterances, and normed speech. As a rule, all such facts are fully and accurately explained in such texts, all causal and investigative links between these or those phenomena are revealed, regularities and so forth are revealed.

Conversational style

This functional style of speech serves for informal or informal communication. It is characterized by the exchange of information on everyday issues, the expression of their thoughts or feelings. It should be specially noted that spoken language is often used for such a speech .

Journalistic style

It is especially often used in various articles, essays, reports, feuilletons, interviews, during an oratorical speech , etc. Almost always journalistic style is used to influence people through magazines, newspapers, radio, television, booklets, posters, etc. It is characterized by Solemn lexicon, phraseology, emotionally colored words, as well as verbatim phrases, the use of short sentences, "chopped" prose, rhetorical questions, repetitions, exclamations, etc.

Official and business style

It is a style of speech that is actively used in the sphere of official relations (jurisprudence, international relations, military industry, economics, advertising, government activities, communication in official institutions, etc.).

Art style

This style of speech is used in fiction. He quite strongly influences the reader's feelings and imagination, fully conveys the author's thoughts, and also applies all the richness of vocabulary, characterized by emotional speech and imagery. It should be noted that other styles can be used in it.

Stylistics as a discipline

As mentioned above, this section necessarily enters the school curriculum. However, several teaching hours are not enough to fully study the peculiarities of the Russian language styles. That is why the program of some higher educational institutions with a humanitarian bias includes a course such as "Stylistics and literary editing." Its goal is to get acquainted with the general theoretical issues of this discipline, as well as to develop practical skills of working with a certain text.

Stylistics of English

In order to achieve the highest possible level of possession of a particular foreign language, it is not enough to master basic grammatical rules, and also learn a few hundred or thousand words. After all, it is extremely important to master a special art - "speaking". To do this, you need to use not only all sorts of stylistic devices in your speech, but also to know how to correctly use those or other styles of speech.

What stylistic devices exist in English?

Having achieved an average level of English, I want to improve more and more. But for this it is necessary to learn to understand and feel well foreign. As a rule, this is done through comparison and analysis. Let's look at together what stylistic devices are used in English:

  • Metaphors. This is a hidden comparison. It is used when some thing or thing that is not peculiar to it is attributed to some object or person. It is extremely important to observe the transfer of certain qualities on the basis of similarity. For example, instead of the word "stars" use "silver dust", instead of "sun" - "pancake", etc.
  • Epithets. This technique emphasizes the quality of the face or object in the sentence, and also expresses the definition (for example, salt tears, true love or loud ocean).
  • Comparison. This method compares more than one subject. This is necessary in order to identify differences and other inconsistencies. To find out the comparison in a sentence, you need to pay attention to words such as "as though", "like", "as ... as", "as like to remind of", "such as", "to resemble"
  • Metonymy. This means of expressiveness is used when a word is replaced by another, which is more similar in meaning (for example, "crown" and "sword").
  • Antonomasia. This is a special type of metonymy, characterized by the replacement of proper names.
  • Euphemisms and paraphrases. Such tricks in English are used quite often. The first means of expressiveness is used to soften some concept, and the second replaces the names of objects with a descriptive turn and at the same time indicates their characteristic features.
  • Hyperbola. This technique is used to exaggerate any qualities (that is, intentional allocation). With the help of hyperbole it is possible to give expressiveness and expressiveness to the following statements: told you 100 times or have not seen for ages.
  • Antithesis. For such a reception is characterized by the opposition of two phenomena or objects (in black and white or now or never).
  • Irony. This method hides the true meaning of the statements. That is, the listener, the viewer or the reader should guess what lies behind these or other words (for example, She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator).
  • Oxymoron and the paradox. These terms are one and the same concept. As a rule, it is used in cases when it is necessary to emphasize any judgment that contradicts common sense (for example, less is more, low skyscraper or pleasantly ugly face). The main difference is that an oxymoron is a word combination, and a paradox is a thought, an idea or a sentence.

Speech styles in English

As in Russian, the styles of speech in English differ not only expressive means and techniques, but also the general specifics. Let us consider them in more detail.

So, in English there are the following styles of speech:

  • Free, or so-called conversational style. It differs by quite pronounced deviations from the accepted norms and is divided into 2 subgroups: familiar-colloquial and literary-colloquial.
  • Newspaper and information style. Designed for objective transmission of events (in written or oral speech). This style is not inherent in a subjective character or emotional evaluation.
  • Officially-business. This style is based on all important documents and all business correspondence.
  • Scientific and technical. This style is characterized by consistency and consistency.
  • Art. This style is used in literary works. It is characterized by subjectivity, emotionality, the use of phraseological units, expressive means, as well as detailed and complex proposals.

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