Styles of the Russian language. Culture of speech and style

The section of science that studies the styles of the Russian language is called stylistics. Stylistics is a linguistic discipline that studies the means of expressiveness of speech and studies the laws of the work of the language, due to the most obvious and necessary use of its components, directly depending on the context, the meaning, the correlation with the concrete situation. We can distinguish the following paradigm: the style of language (gravitates towards the study of its resources), the style of speech (reveals the system for constructing text belonging to one or another style) and the style of the text. The latter is singled out by linguist Odintsov. He examines how the means of constructing texts are correlated with situational tasks, shows which language tools should be chosen to create material of a certain style, and also the use of these tools in different conditions of communication.

Central problem in the section "styles of speech of the Russian language" can be called the doctrine of the norm. It is a kind of sample (lexical, spelling, phonetic, orthoepic, semantic, logical, morphological, punctuation, phraseological, stylistic, word-forming, etc.), without which it would not be possible to qualitatively evaluate speech. There is a conditional division into the linguistic and stylistic norm. Language is engaged in evaluating the right choice and use of the resources of the language itself. A stylistic determines how appropriately chosen these or other forms, components, units in relation to the communicative situation.

For example: the phrase "build a barn" in terms of the language norm corresponds to the canons, since when writing there are no errors at this level. But from the point of view of style, such a combination is unacceptable - the lexeme to "erect" refers to the high syllable (artistic), and the word "cowshed" - to the colloquial sphere, and these are essentially different styles of the Russian language. That is, this combination contradicts the stylistic norm.

So, we can distinguish such styles of the modern Russian language :

  • Style of artistic speech;
  • colloquial;
  • scientific;
  • Newspaper and journalistic;
  • Business speech.

All the styles of the Russian language have their own style-forming, formative factors and attributes inherent in it, the uniform means that predetermine the general patterns of the speech organization and functioning of a particular text.

For example, the scientific style is characterized by objectivity, logic, adherence, organization, strict compositionality, homogeneity, systemic - at the stylistic stage (since the main task is the transfer of scientific information); And at the level of language means - the principle of non-metaphoricity, a large number of terms, abstract nouns, analytical constructions, complex introductory turns. Business speech is characterized by standardization, limited by the compatibility of words, nominal combinations, imperative, observance of formal norms.

The newspaper-journalistic style is designed to convey, convey socially significant information. It allows for some expression, a hint of subjectivity in the transmission of objective facts.

The main features of colloquial speech are dialogue, ease, intermittent phrases, emotionality, expressiveness, incompleteness of sentences, a large number of references, spontaneity, a decrease in the proportion of significant parts of speech and the predominance of particles, interjections, freer word combinations (due to oral speech), a special word order . Artistic speech has the right to a conscious violation of language norms, if it is functionally justified. Its indicators are expressive means, archaisms, dialectisms, neologisms, extensive use of tropes (metaphors, comparisons, epithets, hyperboles, personifications).

These are the main styles of the Russian language and a brief description of each of them.

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