Suggestions with introductory words: definition, rules, punctuation

Introductory words and phrases that are part of the sentence, but do not enter into a syntactic connection with its members. As a rule, they serve to express the speaker's attitude to the expressed thought. Most often they are separated by commas on both sides. Sentences with introductory words can be easily identified by remembering simple rules:

  1. The introductory construction (word, phrase, sentence) can be removed without loss of meaning in the text ("This spring, of course, the weather did not please residents of St. Petersburg" and "This spring the weather did not please the residents of St. Petersburg").
  2. It can not be asked from the other members of the proposal.
  3. Introductory words and sentences are easily replaced by other, similar in meaning constructions ("Frankly, it could not be accused of abuse of authority" or "To admit, it could not be accused of abuse of authority").

By implication, the introductory words may refer to:

  1. The source of the information said: "This book is said to have been written long ago."
  2. The frequency of the action: "She, as usual, cooked for dinner only fine dishes."
  3. The degree of reliability from the point of view of the speaker: "Perhaps because of the noise he hurried to leave this place."
  4. The way of expression of thought: "In other words, with all the desire he could not take part in the competitions."
  5. Appeal to the interlocutor: "The products of this master, you know, have always been very special."
  6. Emotions and feelings of the speaker: "The probability of flooding, unfortunately, was great."
  7. The connection of thoughts: "Consequently, these people never harmed the animals that live here."

Proposals with introductory words. Punctuation

The introductory constructs are separated by commas, however most of the words used in this capacity can serve as the various members of the sentence. One should pay attention to the fact that sentences with certain particles, predicates and circumstances that are not marked by punctuation, can very much resemble sentences with introductory words. Examples :

  • "As a result of unfavorable weather conditions, yields may decrease".
  • "Maria loved in him mostly straightforwardness."
  • "However, he did not have time on the train and stayed in the city for another three days."

Proposals with introductory words also obey several additional rules:

  1. The comma is put when listing a few introductory words: "It seems fair to say that she did not open the assignment before doing the work."
  2. The introductory design may be in front of, inside or after a separate revolution. Here, too, there are several options:
  • Proposals with introductory words, where they are before a separate turnover. In them, the comma is placed before the opening structure and after the turn: "Ivan Petrovich used his skill, in particular, doing small work at home."
  • Inside the separate turnover, the opening word is singled out from both sides: "Arina did not stop fussily shifting things from box to box, thinking at the same time, however, carefully and thoughtfully."
  • When the opening structure is at the end, the comma is placed before the separated turn and after it: "Having written the dismissal, Maxim decided that it would be great to go on a trip to Mexico for example."

3. Introductory words, depending on the context, can be separated or not separated from the union. If such a construction can be removed or rearranged, a comma is placed. If this is not possible, the union and the introductory word are not separated by commas.

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