Unions in the Russian language, and in other language groups, are considered those service parts of speech that are necessary for linking components in a complex sentence, homogeneous terms in a sentence, and also individual sentences in one text.

In Russian, the class of union words and unions includes those words that are responsible for syntactic links in the sentence or word form. Unlike prepositions that perform an official function in unity with case noun forms, this part of speech is not only not related to the grammatical form of the words being joined, but it is also indifferent to their belonging to any part of speech. One and the same union word can be combined as nouns (for example, " I have a father and mother "), verbs ("the boy sings and dances "), adjectives ("the girl is beautiful and intelligent "), adverbs and even those words , Which belong to different parts of speech. The only condition is the coincidence of their syntactic functions - for example: " writing beautifully and without errors . "

Many unions and union words do not have to establish a connection so much as to reveal and specify it. This is another of their distinctive abilities, which no prepositions have. The latter with case inflexion not only reveal the connection, but also form it.

The unions are not only not considered members of the proposal - they do not change. By origin, they are subdivided into derivatives - for example, so that, as if, it is possible to trace the method-forming connection with those significant words from which these unions were formed. Another variety is non-derivative unions, which are not related in origin in today's Russian with other parts of speech. It's alliances or, yes, and.

And according to the method of use, the following forms are distinguished:

  • Non-recurring or solitary - however, but;
  • Paired or double, for example, as ... and, if ... then;
  • Repetitive - this is ... and, neither ... nor.

Based on the structure, the unions are divided into simple, which are written without spaces - a, because , and on the compound - while, as,.

According to the nature of the syntactic relations expressed with their help, there are cohesive and subordinate unions.

Compositions combine equal components - such as parts of a complex sentence.

In their meaning, the compilatory allied words are:

  • Connecting, which express the ratio of enumeration - yes, and, too, and ... and, also;
  • Adversive, expressing the attitude of opposition - however, but, ah, same;
  • Separative, expressing the relation of mutual exclusion - either ... or, or, then ... then;
  • Explanatory, which express the attitude of explanation - like that, exactly;
  • The connecting, expressing the relation of accession - and also, yes and.

Their other kind - subordinate unions - is designed to show the dependence of one component on the other, linking, in the main, links in a complex sentence. Sometimes they are used in simple sentences for heterogeneous and homogeneous terms.

For example, subordinate unions though, as if, as if, than.

The book is prolonged, although very interesting. In this example, homogeneous terms in the sentence are connected.

The winter is shorter than the night. The lake is like a mirror. As you can see, subordinate unions connect any members of the proposal. They can be either homogeneous or inhomogeneous.

Separate complex subordinate unions are used in such cases, when there is a main and a few subordinate clauses. This, for example, such words: who, where, which, which, whose, where, how much, from where, why, why, how much .

By the parameter values, the subordinate unions are of the following categories:

  • Causal - because, as, for ;
  • Temporary - when, only, so far, barely;
  • Target - in order that, so that ;
  • Conditional - if, if only, if;
  • Explanatory - like what to;
  • Ceding - despite the fact that; although;
  • Comparative - as if, exactly, as if, than;
  • Consequences - so.

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