Encyclopaedic dictionaries treat the concept of "alliance" as a union or association of organizations, political parties or states on the basis of stipulated contractual obligations. The Alliance is also a community of individuals, united to achieve any common goals. Consider the essence of this concept and its types.
The meaning of the word "alliance" often implies an alliance between two or more states. But such agreements can also be political, group, people's, international-cooperative, interstate, strategic, economic, military, family, personal and others.
The essence of associations
In relations between states, the alliances are primarily aimed at mutual support of the parties in the presence of a threat of aggression of other powers. They can also be formed to assert any mutual interests.
The closest synonym for the word alliance is a union. It is formed between several countries to unite forces in the struggle against one, more powerful state, threatening their independence. In such cases, the unions are divided into offensive or defensive ones.
Such concepts as coalition, group, corporation, organization, commonwealth, association, association also have a similar meaning. The alliance is a political, economic or military-political coalition of several states, created to protect common interests, ensure joint security, coordinated training and defense from another state. In such a union, common goals are established and joint actions aimed at achieving them are determined. Thus, for example, an anti-Hitler coalition was created , representing during the Second World War the union of peoples and states that opposed the countries of the Nazi bloc.
Interstate alliances are formed on the basis of bilateral or multilateral agreements, covenants, treaties. They can be secret and open, short and long-term, highly organized and simple. Previously, their main focus was victory in the impending war. At the same time, each of the states that are members of the coalition, first of all, pursued its own economic, political and military interests. In modern conditions, an interstate alliance is the creation of a commonwealth whose goal is to achieve the equilibrio in the alignment of forces necessary to ensure the national security of certain powers. NATO is an example of such alliances. This military-political bloc was created in 1949 and exists as a "transatlantic forum" for consultations on any issues between the allied countries and deterring any form of aggression threatening any of its constituent states.
An example of an interstate union can also be the creation in 2005 of the "Alliance of Civilizations", initiated at the 59th UN General Assembly. The goal of the association is to intensify international action against extremism. Conflicts can be resolved through the establishment of intercultural, interethnic and interreligious interaction and dialogue. This alliance draws special attention to reducing frictions between the Islamic and Western worlds. He developed the network "Group of Friends" - an expanding community, which includes states and international organizations that support the goals of this association.
Perspective form of integration
A strategic alliance is the conclusion of an agreement on the cooperation of two or more independent organizations, firms to jointly achieve specific commercial goals and to unite the mutually complementary and mutually beneficial strategic resources of companies. This is a kind of cooperation between organizations whose purpose is to gain access to new markets, technologies and knowledge.
Strategic alliances today are the most promising forms of integration of companies. In the 21st century, they will become the most important weapon of competition. The emergence of such alliances is one of the fastest ways to solve the global strategy. Their main advantage is the agreement on cooperation between firms and organizations, which provides for prospects that go beyond the usual trading operations, but do not lead to the merger of companies. As a rule, strategic alliances are based either on long-term partner relations or limited to certain contracts.
Such unions should be distinguished from joint ventures, which involve the creation of new companies through the contributions of the assets or business of several individual firms. These kinds of entities conduct their business separately from the proprietary corporations, but work in their interests. A strategic alliance is the union of two or more companies willing to share the reward and possible risks for the sake of achieving specific, often completely different goals. Strategic alliances in some ways resemble a deal. Their overwhelming majority throughout its existence presents participants with only one requirement - attracting new resources. Therefore, an important condition for the successful functioning of the alliance is the provision of financial protection: reliable, and most importantly, permanent sources of financial resources. So in due time automobile world giants Toyota Jidosha c Hino Jidosha, Daihatsu Jidosha and Yamaha Jidosha, Daimler-Benz with Crysler and others united. Their main goal consisted in the desire to reorganize the established shares of the world market of cars and to solve the problems of reducing sales on it.
Flexibility of the system
In strategic alliances, access is open to both suppliers and customers. Unions can be created on the basis of inter-firm horizontal cooperation, between companies of related spheres of activity, possessing complementary technologies and experience. Commercial organizations are often participants in several strategic alliances. This makes them sufficiently mobile and free for partners more focused in the future, which reduces the ambiguity in their relations and increases the stability in providing the necessary resources and distribution of services and products.
Alliances can influence competition. Being created for a certain period, they can be painlessly disintegrated in time, if the need for their unification disappears. Legislatively, they are currently the least restrictive in the way they penetrate the market.