The turnover there is / there are in English: the rules of use

The turnover 'there be' / 'there is / there are', ... / (* hereinafter in the examples, the abbreviation is used - "THR" ) from the point of view of grammar is a deviation from the norm. However, like many other deviations in the English language, it is regularly used in speech. It can equally be used in both oral and written speech, both in an informal setting and in formal communication.

The use of this turnover is associated with a number of semantic and grammatical errors, such as semantic: identification with the impersonal sentence 'it is ...', or an adverb / there /; Grammatical: incorrect use of the forms of the verb 'be', adding to the verbal verbal compliment, etc.

Vs. 'There'

What is the difference between the turnover 'there is / there are' from the adverb 'there'?

'There' is often the usual dialect of the place, answering the question "Where?", "Where?", For example:

Are you comfortable there?

The book is there on the table.

In this case, it receives a semantic emphasis, because it reflects the main "intrigue" of the utterance.

However, also 'there' can act as a relative subject, and not as an indication of place. This means that it becomes a pronoun that nominally assumes the role of the subject, while the semantic subject is located as a complement to the predicate. The semantic subject can be put in place of 'THR' without harming the grammar and the general meaning. The only thing is that some meaningful shade will be lost. In this turn, the pronoun 'THR' does not fall under the stress and is pronounced as if in passing.

Thus, / THR is / THR are / are used to present new information and focus on it.

Vs.'it is'

What is the difference between 'there is / there are' from the formal pronoun 'it' in the impersonal sentence 'it is'? For this you need to briefly consider the topic and bump. The theme is the background part, which does not provide basic information; REMA is the key word (phrase) that plays the decisive role, which is stressed. 'It' is a fictitious representative of a logically non-existent subject, or existing somewhere in the context, and the rema here is what happens to it, or in what state it is, what features it has. Whereas 'THR' is the "preventor" of the subject, which semantically (logically) is equivalent to the addition of the predicate, and the rheum is, as a rule, someone or something. That is, the focus is on presence, presence, possibly, number.

Not used with Continuous, personal pronouns as a complement and in a passive voice (Passive V.)

In fact, the phrase 'there is / there are' in English is a paraphrase of 'smth is', 'many are', where the verb 'be' appears in its semantic meaning - "to have a place", "to be", "to be" "To be present", "exist", "occur". That is why it is not used with the constructs of the Continuous (or Perfect Continuous) group, and with the passive voice. For the same reason it is not customary to use it with personal pronouns - it would sound like / THR am I / I am /, / THR are they / They are /, which is so implied, and therefore does not carry in itself a fundamentally new information, And from the semantic point of view it is meaningless.

The rule of using turnover is 'there is / there are'

From this it follows that the construction can be used with:

- nouns with dependent words;

- numerals;

- Undefined pronouns.

In the following constructions (only in the active voice):

- in all four times;

- in an uncertain and perfect aspect.

The relative subject 'There' can be used in different temporal-aspect constructs. Nevertheless, in order to reduce the time, it is usually called just the turnover 'there is / there are'. The construction scheme for all constructions is as follows: opens the sentence with the pronoun 'There'. It is followed by the auxiliary verb 'be' in one of its forms, depending on the situation; The auxiliary verb is followed by a noun with dependent words (if any), i.e. Group of a noun.

There is work to be done.

Today there will be a party.

THR was no damage / There was no danger.

THR have two telephone calls. Received two phone calls.

The turnover 'there is / there are' in the singular and plural

When a group of a noun after the verb stands in the plural, it is necessary to use the plural form of the verb:

There are many reasons for this.

There were two people in the room.

We also use the plural verbs before phrases referring to relative empirical remarks, such as 'a number (of) / a certain number', 'a lot (of)' / set, 'a few (of) / several':

There were a lot of people who settled down there.

THR are only a few left / There are only a few left.

If the noun in the group is in the singular or it is incalculable, then in the same form is used, respectively, and the verb:

There is one point that we must add here.

THR is not enough room here.

A verb in the singular is also put if several objects or persons are mentioned in the sentence, however the first noun following the verb is in units. Number, or is uncountable:

There was a man and there was a woman.

There was a sofa and two armchairs.

Cases of use

The turnover 'there be' ('there is / there are', ...) we use when we say:

- On the existence or presence of people, objects:

There are two people who can know what happened.

- About something that happened:

THR's a meeting every week. Every week there are meetings.

THR was a fierce battle. There was a fierce duel.

- Number or quantity:

Forty of our, I think.

Modal verbs

The 'there is / there are' turnover can also include modal verbs, followed by 'be', 'have been' (beyond those responsible for the future and the future in the past):

THR could be a problem.

There must be a change in government.

No one could be on the street.

There must have been some mistake.


The 'there is / there are' rotation in English in colloquial or informal situations allows the verb 'be' or the modal verb to be abbreviated and abutted to 'there' via an apostrophe ('' s '' is 'or' has ',' 'Re' 'are', 'll' - 'shall' or 'will', 've' - 'have', 'd' - 'had', 'should' or 'would'):

THR's no danger.

There will always be a future for music.

I knew THR'd be trouble. I knew that there would be a problem.

There have been quite a few studies on this subject.

I did not even know that the murder was committed.

'Appear to be'

Also, in addition to the existential verb 'be' - that is, meaning 'to be', 'to happen' - a less unambiguous "it seems, there is a place to be", "it feels like it is happening ..." and similar phrases with verbs like 'Appear' and 'seem':

It seems that there is a huge amount of ambiguity about this.

It seems that there was some negligence.

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