Many students, students and even adults tend to become literate. To see the error on the letter (punctuation, spelling, grammar) can be learned at any age. For this, it is necessary to follow certain rules of the Russian language, to observe them in oral and written speech.
Classification of errors in the Russian language
Errors allowed in speech or writing are not the same in nature. Speech, grammatical, spelling, punctuation mistakes have fundamental differences. Speech and grammatical errors are related to a greater extent with the content and meaning of certain words. Orthographic and punctuation errors are associated with the external expression of these words.
A punctuation is a set of rules for the correct setting of punctuation marks on a letter. The system of these signs is also called punctuation. Ten characters of punctuation are used in Russian. Three of them are signs of completion of thought: a dot, a question mark, an exclamation mark - they stand at the end of the sentence. One is a sign of incompleteness of thought - an ellipsis that can be placed in any part of the sentence. The signs of incompleteness of the statement are a comma, a dash, a colon, a semicolon. They stand in the middle of the sentence. There are double signs in Russian - these are brackets and quotation marks. Additional information is indicated in parentheses. Quotations include names and a direct speech. In other languages, there are some other signs. For example, an inverted question mark in Spanish or single quotes in English.
Both a punctuation mark and a space are called a punctogram. Words in the modern Russian sentence should be separated from each other by spaces, between them must be the necessary punctuation marks. For example, the sun, waves , seagulls - everything is on the seaside resorts . Let's compare, Solntsemorechayki vesesteNamorskikhurortah - turned out to be difficult to read a number of Russian letters. Thus, punctuation marks and spaces are used to separate words and sentences from each other.
Punctograms in different languages
There are languages (for example, Chinese, Japanese), in which there are no spaces.
Punctuation as a science is important for native speakers. After all, the correct formulation of punctuation marks or their absence depends on the understanding of the written text. For example, the offer to make friends can not be fought - definitely requires a punctuation mark for its adequate understanding. Here from the correct statement with a comma: It is to be friends, you can not fight - it depends on how the offer is read and information is understood. Incorrect punctuation is a punctuation error.
Causes of punctuation errors
Grammatical and punctuation mistakes more often than others, occur in the work of students, especially high school students.
Punctuation in a simple sentence
In a simple sentence, that is, in a sentence where one grammatical basis, if it is not complicated, there are no punctuation marks other than the final and dashes. For example, the main thing is to be a soul to be young. Where does the cheetah live? Spring is a wonderful time of the year! If a simple sentence is complicated something, then commas are put in it, sometimes a dash and a colon. Complicating a simple sentence can:
- Homogeneous members: The sea splashed and played. In the basket were oyster mushrooms, mushrooms, chanterelles.
- Isolated members: A vase full of flowers stood on the table. His sister, Elena Lvovna, works on television.
- Appeals: Lisa, speak louder. On the sea, you are beautiful!
- Introductory words and suggestions: Today, perhaps, there will be clear weather. According to the lawyer, the case must continue.
In a simple complicated sentence, punctuation errors, examples of which are given below, are often encountered.
|Proposal with an error||Rule||Corrected proposal|
|The jasmines blossomed in the forest's edge.||The participial turn is segregated in position after the main word||On the edge of the forest, hidden among the trees, jasmine blossomed.|
|Everything suited the princess's house a park pond.||In cases where the generalizing word is in front of a number of homogeneous terms, a colon is placed after the general word.||Everything suited the princess: a house, a park, a pond.|
Punctuation in a complex sentence
In a complex sentence, you can find any punctuation marks. In writing a complex sentence, punctuation errors are often allowed. Probably, this is due to difficulties in the perception of long syntactic constructions. The main thing that needs to be understood is that punctuation marks should be placed between parts of a complex sentence. If this is a compound sentence, then the comma is placed before the writing union: She was bored, and he was interpreting. If the parts of such a sentence have a common term, a comma is not required: For a whole month she was bored and he missed (a common term lasted a whole month ). In a complex sentence, a comma is inserted at the junction of the subordinate parts and the main one: The guys went fishing when the dawn was approaching.
Citation and direct speech
Citation and direct speech are similar in that they use quotation marks. The rules for setting quotation marks are also similar. Quotations are placed in quotation marks and direct speech too.
- Good afternoon!
- Kind! How can I help you?
"I'm interested in the works of the Peredvizhniki artists."