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Russian language. Change of noun by case

Changing the noun by case and number is a feature of the Russian language, making it one of the most difficult in the world, not only for foreigners, but also for carriers. Let us consider this in more detail.

Introduction to the topic

Many already know that in the Russian language the ending will change if you ask different questions to the noun (this is the noun variation with cases):

  • Who what? - a plate, a young man, a captain, grain, drops, paintings, chimpanzees.
  • Whom / What? - plates, jungle, captain, grain, drops, paintings, chimpanzees.
  • To whom; to what? - plate, yung, captain, grain, drops, paintings, chimpanzees.
  • Whom / What? - a plate, a young man, a captain, grain, drops, paintings, chimpanzees.
  • By whom? - a plate, a cabin boy, a captain, a grain, a drop, pictures, a chimpanzee.
  • About who about what? - about the plate, about the young man, about the captain, about the grain, about the drop, about the pictures, about the chimpanzee.

About how exactly the change of the noun by case is called, the 4th grade in the lessons will learn to learn.

The case is the form in which the word in the sentence stands, it is necessary for it to be competently, smoothly and harmoniously combined with the neighboring word.

Almost every pupil of the lower grades knows a funny poem, illustrating the change of nouns with cases:

"Somehow from a thin branch of maple

The green leaf was uncoupled .

He flew after the wind

Fly in white light.

Head turned up

At the maple leaf ...

The wind carried him for a long time,

Dropped only on the bridge.

At the same time shaggy dog

Shmyg - to a beautiful leaf .

Tired claw weary sheet ,

Come on, they say, let's play.

"I will not go," the paratrooper

Shakes his head ...

The wind suddenly with a leaf green,

Like a tornado, it shot up again,

But our prankster is tired

And he fell into my notebook ...

I'll compose in the woods under the maple

A song about a leaf in love. "

Such a change of nouns by case is called declension.


The nominative case is the basic case, opposed to the other indirect cases. Its shape is often equal to the root. It is never used with prepositions. The word in the nominative is one of the two main members of the sentence:

Stone (subject) reliably blocked the entrance to the mysterious cave .

His heart is a hard stone (a predicate).


Earlier the genitive case was called "parental". And this is not an accident! Its main function was to designate the degree of kinship between people (father's daughter, grandmother's grandson, descendant of the genus). Currently, he also denotes a certain relationship between the two words (the fate of women, the voice of the nightingales, the character of the champion, the income of the firm). Can be used both with pretexts and without them (ask a sorceress, a spark from a spark, demand from the boss, a hut near the sea, a surprise for the pet, wait until the morning, run from the monster).


It is interesting that initially this form was called the "generous" case, since it denoted the one for whom anything is being done. Since then, the meaning of the case has expanded (the orphan sad, revenge on the enemies, go to the gate, responded with voices).


The accusative case is an oblique case, expressing an objective, subjective and circumstantial significance. The difficulty is that this form can sometimes coincide with the form of the genitive or nominative case.

To make sure that the case is accusative, you need a word that causes doubts to be replaced by the noun of the first declension.

I can clearly see the scarlet sail . I see the mast.

I looked with horror at the lone wolf . I look at my dad.


This case was called so because it was used to refer to the tools, other functions later appeared (writing with a pen, catching a net, walking with friends, laughing at a fool).


According to the frequency of use, the prepositional case takes the second place after the nominative, it is always used with prepositions and serves to indicate the time, place and the one about whom (or what) speech is being spoken (in the village, about the benefits, at the monastery, in the square).

In order to determine the case of a noun without error, it is necessary first to find the word from which it depends and with which it is connected. And ask a question from him.

Change of noun by case
Question words Prepositions Noun Case
Who what? Girl, servant, port, field, shadow, parents, highway Nominative
Whom / What? With, about, for, y, without, from, to, from, Near the girl, at the servant, without the port, from the field, from the shade, for the parents, from the highway Genitive
To whom; to what? By, to To the girl, to the servant, to the port, to the field, to the shadow, to the parents, along the highway Dative
Whom / What? Through, pro, behind, on, in, in For the girl, about the servant, to the port, through the field, about the shadow, for the parents, across the highway Accusative
By whom? Before, between, above, below, behind, with, with, Before the girl, the servant, the port, the field, the shadow, the parents, between the highway Instrumental
About who about what? On, on, on, about, on With the girl, the servant, the port, the field, the shadows, the parents, the highway Prepositional

How to remember the case?

In the Russian language, there are as many as 6 cases. Everyone has special questions. But to teach them was not boring, helpers came to help:

Change by case (declination) of nouns
Case Question Word-helper Act
Nominative Who! What? there is Nod
Genitive Whom? What? no Negative head shaking
Dative To whom? To what? Gave Gesture for taking an imaginary object
Accusative Whom? What? Love Hand at heart
Instrumental By whom? Than? satisfied Hand stroking your belly pretty
Prepositional About whom? About what? I dream Hand at the head, eyes up

Let's study the change of nouns by case - Russian will submit to us!

Change of nouns by case is called ...

The answer we already know is declination. How many of them and with what difficulties can be encountered? A competent change in nouns with cases is not difficult, if you master the main types of declension:

  1. All nouns of the feminine gender (except for those that end in a soft sign), masculine-on-a / y;
  2. Masculine, those in the nominative end in a consonant sound, of the middle genus by -o / e;
  3. The feminine gender, having in the end the words "b".
Declination 1 scl. 2 skl. 3 scl.
Genus Female R. Husband. R. Husband. R. Avg. R. Female R
Nominative branch uncle temple window mouse
Genitive Twigs Uncles Temple window Mice
Dative Branch Uncle Temple The window Mice
Accusative Branch Uncle temple window mouse
Instrumental Branch Uncle Temple The window Mouse
Prepositional About the branch About uncle About the temple About the window About the mouse

Change of nouns with plural cases

Plural nouns do not have a division according to the types of declension. The case is defined in the same way as in the singular: it is only necessary to ask the question:

  • Who what? - teachers, candy (nominative).
  • Whom / What? - teachers, candy (genitive).
  • To whom; to what? - Teachers, sweets (dative).
  • Whom / What? - teachers, candy (accusative).
  • By whom? - teachers, sweets (instrumental).
  • About who about what? - about teachers, about sweets (prepositional).

Undecidable nouns

In some cases, the modification of nouns with cases occurs without changing the ending:

  • coat;
  • cinema;
  • kangaroo;
  • cocoa;
  • coffee;
  • Chimpanzees;
  • Pince-nez;
  • Hummingbird;
  • pony;
  • relay;
  • fillet;
  • highway;
  • Taxi;
  • Metro;
  • aloe;
  • Muffler;
  • Dressing table;
  • a cafe;
  • Manto;
  • cockatoo;
  • Dragees;
  • bet;
  • interview;
  • Ragout;
  • jury;
  • Mashed potatoes;
  • the Bureau;
  • studio.

You just need to remember these words.

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