For citizens who reach a certain age and therefore are unable to provide themselves financially, the state provides for the payment of pensions.
The old-age pension can be of two types:
- Labor pension for old age;
- Social pension for old age.
The purpose of each type of payment has its characteristics and features.
An old - age labor pension is a monthly cash payment, which is assigned to people who have reached a certain age, established by law, and who have the appropriate length of service. Has the purpose of compensation of wages or other income, which was typical for the period of labor activity.
The old-age pension consists of separate components:
The size of the pension and the procedure for payment are determined by the Federal Law "On Labor Pensions in the Russian Federation".
An old-age pension can be paid after reaching a certain age, and also provided that you have at least five years of insurance experience. For men, the retirement age is 60 years, for women 55 years.
Some categories of citizens have the right to retire at an earlier age.
This applies to those who:
- worked in special conditions,
- in the Far North,
- performing certain activities for a fixed period (medical, pedagogical workers) - retirement pensions,
- individual categories of disabled people,
- mothers with many children.
The base part is set in a fixed amount (this is the so-called total size). Its size is provided by such factors as disability, reaching the age of eighty, the presence of dependents. In this case, an increased pension is established. In the presence of several factors simultaneously, the amount of the pension is established in an even larger amount (paragraph 4, Article 14).
In accordance with the general Federal Law of July 24, 2009, the basic part was included in the insurance part (the so-called fixed size).
The fixed size of the insurance part from February 1, 2011 is 2963 rubles 07 kopecks.
The cumulative part is the ratio of the amount of savings on insurance payments to the number of months of the period in which pension payments are planned.
The accumulative part is the only component of the pension, the size of which depends on the citizen. It can be invested by any organization at the choice of a citizen (public or private).
Social pension for old age
The social old-age pension is supposed to be paid by the state to citizens who have reached 65 and 60 years (for men and women) and do not have a seniority of five years, as well as to citizens of the small peoples of the North who have reached the age of 55 and 50 (for men and women ).
The social old-age pension is intended for the receipt of disabled citizens who have reached the advanced age and who do not have the right to receive a labor pension. For this category of citizens, social pension is in fact the only source of material security.
It is characteristic that the social old-age pension can be paid from the age of five years of the generally accepted retirement age. Early social pension (such as labor for old age) can not be obtained.
Only citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to receive state payments, in addition foreign citizens and stateless persons who permanently reside on the territory of the Russian Federation.
Receive such benefits from the state citizen can after applying for a social pension.
There are some peculiarities with which the social pension for old age is adjusted. Such payments are not made in cases when persons who have reached 65 and 60 years (for men and women) are engaged in the performance of work or other paid activity under a civil law contract. That is, to receive state old-age benefits, citizens should not be officially listed as working.