Tszemin - the head of China for 13 years, from 1989 to 2002. Was the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee. Head of the Military and Central Council of the People's Republic of China. From 1993 to 2003 President of the PRC.
Tszemin was born on August 17, 1926 in Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou City. Comes from an intelligent family. His grandfather was a good doctor and professed traditional Chinese medicine, was fond of calligraphy and painting. Father was a poet, published journals, was in the underground Communist Party, but died at the age of 28 during an armed struggle.
Jiang Zemin received a good education. He enrolled at the Shanghai Jiaotong University of Transportation, at the Electrical Engineering Department. Participated in underground work. He graduated from Shanghai University in 1947. A year before this event, in 1946, joined the ranks of the Communist Party.
When the People's Republic of China was formed, Jiang worked for nearly thirty years in the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering. There he went a long way from an ordinary employee to the director of one of the largest research institutes.
Practice, while still a student, was held at the Moscow Automobile Plant named after Likhachev. Jiang irreconcilably treated leftism. And at the end of the "cultural revolution" he was sent as part of a group of the Central Committee to work in Shanghai to investigate the illegal actions of the "gang of four".
In the early 1980's. Jiang Zemin worked as minister of the electrical industry, thanks to him many new technologies were introduced. He managed to establish links with many influential military-industrial officials. He knows very well how to create special socio-economic zones and attract foreign investors to the country.
During his work, he visited many free trade zones in at least 10 countries around the world. From 1985 to 1989 Worked as mayor of Shanghai, then secretary of the party committee. With the help of acquired skills, Jiang densely occupied a niche in politics.
Jiang Zemin took charge of the CCP in 1989. This happened after the Secretary-General of the CCP Central Committee, Ch. Ziyang, was released from his post and sent under house arrest. The fault of this disgrace was the support of protesting students who demanded political liberties in the PRC.
The decisive role in the appointment of Jiang to a high-ranking post was his statement that he fully supports the actions of the country's leadership, due to this became the first candidate to replace D. Xiaopeng. Jiang was recalled from Shanghai and appointed secretary general of the Chinese Communist Party.
When Jiang came to the place of Xiaoping, many believed that he was temporarily appointed to the post of party head. But this opinion quickly changed when Zemin took under strict control not only the party itself, but also its government. As a result, in 1993, Jiang became chairman of the PRC.
Political scientists believe that with their successes, China owes the rigidity of Zemin's character, including the successes in the political sphere as well. China has so strengthened its positions that not only has its own opinion on many world problems, but also openly declares this. And now it is already taken into account by the entire world community.
In the late 1960's. Jiang Zemin, whose biography is described in this article, was criticized by the Red Guards. True, he still managed to avoid extreme consequences, but temporarily his political career was hampered. In the early 1970's. He left for Romania, on a working trip. When he returned to his homeland, he moved to Beijing, since he took a responsible post in the government.
From 1980 to 1982 Was deputy minister in the State Commission for Export and Import. From 1982 to 1983 Worked for the post of deputy minister of electronic industry, and in the period from 1983 to 1985. Already directly by the Minister of Economy. At that time in China, at the initiative of the then head of state, Deng Xiao Ping , changes began to occur. Jiang's career was helped by the reputation of a specialist who knows the state of affairs in the world. As a result, he began to climb the career ladder even higher.
In 1985, when the Shanghai Mayor Wang Daohan resigned, he recommended Jiang Zemin to his place. To his advice, the government listened, and Jiang became the new mayor. In 1989, he was additionally appointed to the post of Chairman of the Military Central Commission. And in 1993, Jiang - President of the PRC.
When there was a change in the Secretary-General of the PRC, Jiang managed to create a temporary advantage in his own favor. But, despite the temporary retention of some senior positions, he still had to become an unofficial leader, just as in his time to Deng Xiaoping.
In 2002, the head of China, Ts. Zemin, who at that time was 76 years old, resigned. From 2002 to 2005, while the transfer of power was underway, he gave up all his posts (General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Chairman of the Republic of China and head of the military council Hu Jintao) to his successor.
Nevertheless, Jiang, having left all high posts, left the last word when issues concerned internal political disputes and sensitive political issues. Hu stressed to him respectfulness, skipping at the meetings ahead, although he was already above his position. During these three years, while the transfer of power was going on, Hu refrained from personnel rearrangements, but then the gradual oppression of Zemin's supporters began.
PRC: Reform of Jiang Zemin
According to his policy, Jiang not only continued the reforms that were initiated before him by D. Xiaoping, but he was able to introduce new ones. China at that time only began to struggle for a place in the world markets. Thanks to the efforts and reforms of Jiang, PRC:
- Was on the 7th place in the world in the field of economy;
- Became a member of the WTO;
- The military and economic potential;
- Declared her desire to become a leader in the Asia-Pacific (Asia-Pacific region) ;
- Adopted in Shanghai the ASEAN summit;
- Won an application for the next Olympic Games (2008).
Conservatives of the CCP actively resisted the new reforms, but Jiang managed to "squeeze" his own theory about the "three representations" in the party program. This innovation equalized the intelligentsia with the peasants and workers and opened the way for private entrepreneurship.
PRC during the reign of Jiang Zemin: friendship with the USSR
In the political biography of Ts. Zemin the USSR occupies a special place. In the 1950s. Jiang underwent an internship at the Automobile Plant. Stalin in the Soviet Union. It was then that Jiang formed the Soviet mentality. He is fluent in Russian, knows a lot of proverbs and proverbs on it, sings old popular songs in Russian well.
In the 1990's. He visited Moscow already as the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. In 1998, a diplomatic meeting "without ties" was held. In this form, it was held in the history of China for the first time. But before the meeting, Jiang first met with his colleagues, with whom he worked at ZIS in 1955.
In 1997, he signed a diplomatic agreement with Yeltsin on the multipolar world and the world order in the 21st century (Moscow-China). The document was based on equal cooperation. Jiang long dreamed to visit the homeland of his beloved writer Leo Tolstoy and chose this time to visit these places. He was very fond of the philosophical foundations of his work. But the works of Leo Tolstoy knew absolutely everything.
Jiang Zemin He is married to Van Epin, who worked as a mechanical engineer. Their marriage took place in 1948. Jiang's wife also comes from Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou City. In the marriage they had two sons: Mianheng and Jinkan.
Zemin is fluent in English and Russian. He loves music and literature, writes memoirs and books. In 2006, his book with selected works was published. The beginning of sales was widely covered by the central television. Thanks to one of the Chinese teachers, Jiang's poems were included in the school curriculum in the textbook of literature.
He tried to achieve success in the field of poetic creativity. In 1991, his poem was published, dedicated to the harsh winter raging in the northwest of the PRC. And one of the last poems was created during the ascent to the Yellow Mountain - this is one of the sacred Chinese peaks. In 2001, Jiang wrote three more poems, one of which was dedicated to Fidel Castro.
Tszemin sings well and sometimes demonstrated it in duets with famous Chinese singers or their overseas counterparts. For example, Luciano Pavarotti said that Jiang could well become a big opera star. One day, the Chinese leader invited him, Placido Domingo and Jose Carreras to dine after the concert in Beijing. All four gathered decided to add a bit of creativity to dinner and sang. Pavarotti was amazed when the Chinese president unexpectedly and quite professionally sang a duet with him.