Most of us have learned the language by ear and communicate their thoughts through speech. We reproduce words and phrases in our minds and pronounce them, thus expressing what we wanted to say. But how do deaf mutes communicate?
Eyes instead of ears
The human desire to communicate is very strong and can overcome any obstacles. In hearing-impaired people, the function of learning a language usually assumes the vision. Life brought these people together, and they themselves developed a special way of communication, known as gesture (kinetic) language. Over time, he developed a new vocabulary and was a whole linguistic system. Of course, many of us have at least once seen how the deaf-mute communicate.
Earlier, hearing in many schools was forbidden to use gestures, while making them read on the lips, and express their thoughts on writing. But those of them who at first learned kinetic speech, coped with their studies more easily and quickly learned to read and write.
And in what language do deaf-mute people think? On his own - a gesture. Hearing people formulate their thoughts in the head in the same language they communicate with. So it is with the deaf.
Many people mistakenly think that the deaf can not speak. But as a rule, the sound machine is not damaged, it's just not developed.
How Deaf-mute People Communicate: Sign Language
From the outside it seems that this is an improved pantomime, since it also actively uses facial expressions, body movements and the surrounding space.
A special dactylic alphabet was also developed - a system of hand signs corresponding to letters. If each word is transmitted with its help, then the expression of thought takes a long time.
There are such kinetic languages (Cuban, Portuguese, Spanish), where facial expressions play the most important role, it is even too expressive. Usually it is inherent in those nationalities, which in themselves are more emotional in their psychotype. But facial expressions mostly perform a grammatical function. With its help, one can distinguish a question from a command, a conditional inclination from an assertion.
Geographically, the area of use of sign language and oral language does not always coincide. Russian kinetic speech is spread on the territory of Ukraine, Belarus, Israel. In Puerto Rico, the deaf communicate through American gestures, although the primary language of the hearers is Spanish.
And how do deaf-mutes from different countries communicate? After all, for someone who owns the British sign language, the American is the same as the foreign one. Therefore, scientists from all over the world have developed a universal notation system, which includes about 1500 concepts.
In addition to vocabulary, each kinetic language has its own grammar. For example, in its American version, as well as in Russian, the subject of discussion is indicated at the beginning of the proposal, and then something is reported about it. If in the oral speech the definition usually faces the subject, then in the gesture everything is the other way around. The main feature of many such languages is also in the construction of events exclusively in chronological order.
Do they understand the deaf written text?
Reading is very closely related to auditory memory. That is, the hearing child knows the sound of the phoneme "a", and when in the letter it is shown how it is indicated in the letter, it is quite easy for him to remember this connection. It's hard for the deaf to compare graphic images with the sounds of oral speech. The difficulty also lies in the fact that in gestural languages there is an entirely different construction of sentences, there are no cases and declensions there. But in spite of such difficulties, the majority of the deaf people still learn the technique of reading and can express their thoughts on the letter.
Understand the world of the deaf
Many people mistakenly believe that the deaf are very limited in acquiring knowledge. But in fact, sign languages are not primitive, but very rich. With their help, you can express the thought of any complexity. Therefore, people who communicate in sign language can master all branches of knowledge, without any problems, receive higher education. Watching how the deaf-mutes communicate, we see that the absence of hearing does not prevent them from making friends, creating a family, educating their children, in short, to lead a normal life.
And how to communicate with deaf-mute people? For a full exchange of thoughts you need to learn their native language - gestural - or at least dactyl alphabet. There is no other way to understand their thinking.