Almost every one of us knows that a very large percentage of all cargo transportation in the world is carried out by railway transport. As for the post-Soviet space, on this territory the railway is practically an absolute, unconditional leader in terms of the amount of passenger and cargo traffic carried along it. Therefore, in this article, we will consider in detail the one of the leading machines that pulls out different wagons, the name of which is an electric locomotive VL-80.
This power railway unit is the brainchild of the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant. It was at this enterprise that the VL-80 electric locomotive was designed and manufactured in all its existing modifications. At this industrial facility, assembly work was exclusively carried out, and all the required components were supplied from other engineering enterprises of the country. In total, 2746 units were produced, and the last car disembarked in 1995.
Scope of application
Electric locomotive VL-80 serves for working with a variety of goods on domestic and foreign (Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan) trunk electrified single-phase current with a frequency of 50 Hz railways.
All the equipment of the locomotive is oriented to work with a contact network with a voltage of 19-29 kV. The ambient temperature can be in the range from -50 to +40 degrees Celsius with a humidity of up to 90% and the height at sea level is not higher than 1200 meters.
The locomotive VL-80 traveled from the factory gate made up of a pair of sections, although some models of an electric locomotive have three or even four sections, but we'll talk about this a little later.
Considering the mechanical part of VL80, we note that it is represented by two absolutely identical biaxial trolleys, in which their frames are made welded. Bearing bearings of the roller type are interfaced with the frame of the trolley with the help of silent blocks (these are rubber-metal joints). From the trolleys to the body, the braking force and thrust are transmitted through the pivots - the rods of the swivel coupling. Electrically, the motors that provide the movement of the locomotive are fixed by means of axial suspension. Type of motors - НБ-418К6. From the engine to the wheel pairs, the rotation is transmitted by a two-sided gear helical gear with a sufficiently rigid crown. Since in this gear the teeth of the gears have a certain inclination, the axial force is completely absent in the gearing, which in turn significantly reduces the load on the drive and increases the service life of the parts.
Electric locomotive VL-80 on each of its sections is equipped with:
- Pantograph, which carries a current collector with a contact network. It is located directly above the driver's cab.
- The main switch of the VOV-25M.
- Traction transformer with motor-pump oil type.
- A pair of rectifier installations.
- The main controller.
- Phase separator for the development of the third phase, which is used in the supply of induction motors of other auxiliary units.
- Four motors-fans, performing cooling of various equipment and pressurization of the body of the locomotive. Two such motors necessarily cool each traction electric motor.
- Compressor KT-6EL for generating the air required for normal operation of the braking system, power units, blocking of the high-voltage chamber, supplying sound signals of various loudness, the operation of the pneumatic drive of the glass cleaners.
Equipped with traction winding and winding of its own needs with an idling voltage of 399 V (rated load is 380 V), which serves to power a multitude of auxiliary control circuits. In cases of significant fluctuations in the voltage of the contact network, the voltage on the auxiliary motors is stabilized by two taps having their own voltage of 210 V and 630 V. Their switching on the transformer occurs manually. On the main engines, the voltage adjustment occurs immediately directly during the operation of the driver.
Moving an electric locomotive is due to a change in voltage, which is fed to each traction motor. On any of the existing modifications of VL-80 (except VL-80P), the voltage on the TED is regulated by switching under load the transformer bays using the electrical master controller. In order to exclude the possibility of a current surge at the moment of position transition between the transformer and the controller, a transient reactor is mounted, which performs the switching of the switching overloads using its own high inductance.
Since the elements pass through themselves simply colossal currents, in this connection their contacts are made of a special coal-silver compound. In total, the electrocontroller (ECG) contains about 12 kilograms of silver. The ECG is powered by a DC motor with a voltage of 50 V and a power of 500 watts, which when starting up in an electric locomotive always dims light and reduces the voltage in the control circuits.
The speed of an electric locomotive VL-80R, on which the main electric controller is missing, is regulated in a different way. Also on this locomotive there is a regenerative braking, which ensures return of the consumed electric energy back to the network.
Electric locomotive VL-80, the technical characteristics of which are indicated below, is used as a cargo-passenger locomotive. The main indicators of this machine are:
- The length is 32480 mm.
- The height (measured from the rail head to the runners of the lowered current collector) is 5100 mm.
- The hourly power is 6520 kW.
- The thrust force is 4501 tons.
- The speed is 51.6 km / h.
- Power in the long-term mode - 6160 kW.
- Pulling force with a long operating mode - 40.9 tons.
- The traction force at the time of the beginning of the movement is 65 tons.
NEVZ electric locomotives were produced in various designs and therefore their model range is quite wide. Let us consider them in more detail.
Its mechanical part consists of four sections and placed under them unmated carts. Each of the sections has CA-3 auto-couplers at its edges.
The trolleys are made of a sheet beam, tubular end attachments and sidewalls with a box section. All the forces that affect the electric locomotive are transmitted through a cradle suspension. The control circuits contain circuit breakers that replaced the fuses installed before . Also, the ventilation system has been slightly modified: the corridors pass more freely, the left prechamber is reduced and raised to the roof. The electric circuit of the locomotive has undergone changes. In particular, a high-performance rheostat brake, brake resistors, switches are installed. All this led to a noticeable re-arrangement of all available equipment.
The instruction manual for the electric locomotive states that at the time of arrival to the train its speed should not exceed 3 km / h. This completely eliminates the chance of a stroke and does not damage the automatic coupler.
A distinctive feature of this electric locomotive is that on it the machinist can drive three or more sections from one console. This became possible after the system of many units was introduced.
The mechanical and electrical equipment of the locomotive is almost identical to the VL-80T, however there are also differences:
- An alarm has appeared that shows the operation of the additional connected sections.
- Various inter-electric connections have been introduced.
Gradually, various changes were made to the freight train VL-80C to improve the level of reliability of the machine and reduce the cost of its production. For example, new asynchronous electric motors ANE-225L4UHL2 were installed instead of AE-92-4. Also in 1985 on several models experienced TED were installed. The increase in individual elements of the entire structure and the introduction of the newest units led to the fact that the total mass of the locomotive was increased, and a new nominal figure of 192 tons was installed.
Operation of this locomotive in winter conditions requires special measures such as:
- Replacement of summer grease for winter.
- Elimination of existing leaks in the covers of manholes, floor and other body places.
- Check the condition of the battery.
- Revision of axle bearings and gears.
This electric locomotive was developed taking into account past shortcomings and received the possibility of regenerative braking. Also it was the very first electric locomotive, in which there was thyristor regulation of alternating current. In these machines, controllers of the KME-80 type were installed. To maintain the normal temperature of the operating equipment of the locomotive, fans of CVP64-14 were used. The electric locomotive of this model was actively involved as railway transport on the railways of Krasnoyarsk region, East Siberian and Far Eastern highways. By the way, a remarkable fact: VL-80T - 1685 was involved in the filming process of the film "Magistral", which became a favorite among experienced railway workers.
The cabin of this locomotive is almost identical to the VL-80T, but there are two differences:
- In the upper right corner of the VL-80R there is a special board with eight lamps, each of which shows the status of high-speed section switches.
- The controller of the machinist is made in the form of a steering wheel, and not a lever.
Each section of this electric locomotive up to No. 380 was equipped with two centrifugal fans with a capacity of 40 kW each, which were used to cool existing traction motors. Fans take air through the blinds located on the right side of the body wall.
Starting from No. 380, the locomotive was equipped with centrifugal two-wheeled fans, which carried out air intake through the side blinds.
This type of electric locomotive began to be produced in 1991 and was produced only four years.
Structurally it was not too different from VL-80S. However, there were some changes. So, the buffers and spotlights on the roof of the locomotive have changed their configuration a little. In appearance, it was a bit like the VL-85.
Electric locomotive, which was used a special system to perform a smooth adjustment of the voltage of traction motors using a converter Vip-4000M rectifier-inverter type. Also, advanced engines NB-418KR were installed.
Locomotive is equipped with a control system using microprocessor technology and diagnostics. It provides both manual and automatic control of the electric locomotive, guarantees reliable protection against slipping and yuz, regulates the excitation current in the regenerative braking mode, controls the relay-contactor devices and diagnoses all equipment of the multi-ton machine.
The control panel of the locomotive has become even more ergonomic and convenient. Air conditioners and new chairs for the driver and his assistant began to be applied.
Repair of electric locomotives VL is carried out in two versions:
- Average repair - is carried out for bringing to the initial level of operational characteristics, as well as for partial or complete restoration of the operability of the main parts and assemblies (inspection and repair of cables, pipelines and others).
- Overhaul - restore the resource of absolutely all worn out parts and parts. If necessary, a complete replacement of worn out components. The machine, in fact, understands up to each screw.
Before any of the above-mentioned types of repair, the electric locomotive is cleaned of dirt and dust, dismantled at assembly sites, which are subsequently subjected to a very thorough inspection in order to determine the extent of their wear and tear. At the time of washing electrical equipment, all wires and equipment are reliably insulated from the ingress of detergent solutions into them.
Electric locomotives based on VL-80
The arrangement of the VL-80 electric locomotive turned out to be so convenient and thoughtful that a whole series of other locomotives were produced on its basis. So, in 1999, Demikhovsky Machine Building Plant built four ED1 electric trains, which consisted of ten cars and ED9T directly, and from both ends of the train the main motor cars were replaced by sections of the VL80s electric locomotive. ED 1 was delivered to the depot of the Far-Eastern road and Khabarovsk-2. However, in 2009 all these trains were completely disbanded.
In 2001, a project was created to form two system trains with increased comfort. For this purpose, the electric cars ED4DK were used, which were placed between the DC and AC sections.
At the end of 2001, the DMZ created the ED4DK-001 electric train, on the one side of which was a direct current section of VL-10-315, and on the other, VL-80T-1138. However, in the course of further work it became clear that the joint operation of these two units is impossible for technical reasons. A striking confirmation of this was the section of VL-10-315 burned to the ground.
The freight train VL-80 received so wide recognition in our life that the creators of computer games even used it in one of their offsprings - Railroad Tycoon 3. In addition, an absolutely reliable copy of the electric locomotive found its place in the game STALKER