History knows several civil wars in Rome. Particularly tense was the situation in the period of the late Republic.
How many years have civil wars continued in Rome?
The period during which the battles were fought, a number of historians characterize as one of the biggest systemic crises in the history of the Empire. The most famous civil war in Rome occurred in the 40s BC. E. In the course of it Julius Caesar confronted the senatorial elite, whose head was Pompey the Great. How many years civil wars continued in Rome, as many permanent internal reforms in the state took place. In total, the battle lasted more than 100 years - from 133 to 31 years BC. E.
What are the causes of civil wars in Rome? By the end of the 2nd century BC. E. Gaius Marius conducted the army reform. The peasantry was devastated, and therefore recruitment to the troops on the property qualification was impossible. Thus, the beggars aspired to the army. And the soldiers began to serve solely for salaries and had no other source of income.
After the victory over the Teutons and Cimbri was won, Rome had no serious enemies for several decades. Along with this, contradictions were aggravated inside the Republic itself. They are the causes of civil wars in Rome. They ended with the establishment of a monarchy with the preservation of some republican institutions.
The beginning of civil wars in Rome falls on the end of the 90s. The first of them was called Allied. This civil war in Rome was conducted by the Italian allies against the authorities. To end the confrontation, the government was forced to go to meet the insurgents. As a result, the Italian allies received Roman citizenship. However, after this battle almost immediately followed. The new civil war in Rome began between the aristocratic party, headed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and the democrats, led by Guy Marius.
Many civil wars in Rome were accompanied by special bloodshed and ended in repression. This was, for example, the confrontation between the aristocracy and the brothers of the Gracchi. In 133 there was a skirmish in the Capitol. In the course of it, the tribune of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, as well as 300 Gracchians, fell right during the commissions at the hands of the senators and accomplices who supported them.
The next clash occurred in 121 year. The people's tribune Guy Sempronius Gracchus and about 3000 Gracchians were defeated during the storming of Aventin by troops called by the senate. The follower of the Gracchi, Lucius Appuleus Saturninus, fell in the year 100 at the hands of the optimists during the assault of the Capitol. The next clash occurred in the years 91-88 BC. E. This was the Allied war, which was not formally considered civil, since the Italians did not have citizenship.
Marians and Sullans
Civil war in Rome between supporters of Guy Maria and Sulla occurred in 88-87 years. As a result of the battles, the first fled. However, after some time, there were new civil wars in Rome with the participation of Marians. So, in 87-83 years there was a revolution. Marians, recovering from the previous defeat, seized power. In 87, an attempt was made to overthrow the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna. However, the insurrection was suppressed by Gnaeus Octavius. As a result, Cinna was forced to flee.
In the same year 87, Marius returns and besieges Rome. Quintus Sertorius and Cinna immediately join him. At this time, an epidemic began in Rome. The army of the Senate, Pompey's father are dying, and the authority itself is capitulating. After that, Octavia is executed, and Maria and Cinna were consuls elected for the 86th year. The second attempted to bring the war closer to Sulla, but perished in the course of the Ancona mutiny. Nevertheless, a new war was inevitable.
Events of 83-77 years
The next battle took place between the Sullans and Marians in 83. Marius died, and Sulla was able to occupy Rome. So in 82 the dictatorship was established.
After the resignation and death of Sulla began a fairly unstable period. In the course of it there were several conflicts. So, in 80-72 years there was a protracted war between the Sullans and Quintus Sertorius (Marian). The victory was for the senate (Sullans). In 77 there was a short-term war - a revolt of Lepidus. I must say that he was not formally a Marian. The clash again ended in the victory of the Sullans.
Revolt of Spartacus
It happened in 74 / 73-71 years. This conflict has become one of the largest in the era of internal contradictions. In the uprising involved slaves, the leader of which was Spartacus. The victory was won by the army of Rome. In 74 or 73 in Capua, at the school of gladiators, a conspiracy arose. Of the 200 rebels, only 78 could escape, including Spartacus.
Gladiators were, in fact, professional military. They fought to the death in front of the public in the arenas. Experienced gladiators were very valuable capital. The hosts protected them and tried in every possible way to prevent the death of their slaves. Many such gladiators were given freedom. However, they did not leave school, but remained in them as teachers-rudyarii. Many experienced gladiators were in the protection of noble persons and participated in the struggle between factions and parties not only in Rome, but also in other Italian cities.
Spartacus and his comrades, of whom Especially Eenomai and Crixus stood out, decided to form a powerful army. They wanted to fight on equal terms with the Roman legions. In history there is no exact answer to the question of whether Spartak planned to lead the rebels out of Italy, where he and the army could engage in any hostile state for service. Perhaps he was going to seize power in Rome itself, relying on the support of the Italian peasantry and freed slaves, thus achieving goals that the Italians could not realize during the Allied war. In the years 63-62, the rebellion of Catilina occurred. The plot was uncovered and quickly sold by forces supporting the Senate and the Republic.
Caesarians and Pompeians: table
Civil wars in Rome during the reign of Caesar and after his assassination were very fierce. The following are the main battles.
The war between Pompey and Caesar. The second won
A series of wars after the death of Caesar
The battle between the Senate and Mark Antony. The war ended with the reconciliation of the participants and the formation of the Second Triumvirate
The Battle of Philippi. In this short-term battle involved the assassins of Caesar and the second triumvirate, who defeated
The war between the army of Sextus Pompey and the Caesarians. The last
Battles between the Caesarians
In 41-40 years there was Peruzinsky war. Mark Antony and Octavian participated in it. The battle ended with the reconciliation of the opposing sides. The last war in the Roman Republic was conducted in 32-30 years. In it again participated Octavian and Mark Antony. In this battle the second was defeated.