HealthDiseases and Conditions

Causes, clinical manifestations and treatment of cholelithiasis

Gallstone disease is a disease that occurs with the formation of concrements in the gallbladder. This pathology occurs quite often, mostly women suffer from.

Among the main pathogenetic mechanisms that provoke this pathology, one should mention the violation of fat metabolism, stagnation of bile, as well as its infection. Among the provoking factors of cholelithiasis are elderly age, the intake of certain pharmacological preparations (for example, contraceptives, "Ceftriaxone"), a certain role is assigned to hereditary factors, obesity, pregnancy, diabetes, and stomach resection, low cholesterol concentration and biliary dyskinesia. The development of this pathology is also promoted by allergic and autoimmune processes, gallbladder inflammation, irregular diet, high cholesterol in foods, and strict diets. Treatment of cholelithiasis depends on its stage of development, etiology and peculiarities of the course.

Clinical manifestations

Quite often this pathology proceeds asymptomatically. When the stones come out of the gallbladder, there is an attack of cholelithiasis, which is manifested by sudden pain in the hypochondrium, nausea and vomiting, dry mouth, itching of the skin. Yellowness of the skin and sclera can develop, dark urine and discolored feces are observed.

Treatment of cholelithiasis

At the initial stages of development of this pathology, an active lifestyle is recommended. It is also necessary to normalize the body weight and eliminate the etiological factors - endocrine disorders, inflammation of the biliary tract, intestinal pathology. Importance has a dietary diet with the exclusion of fatty and high-calorie dishes.

Treatment of cholelithiasis should also include the use of appropriate medications, among which are the following:

• "Phenobarbital" (to stimulate the formation of bile acids);

• ursodeoxycholic acid - promotes the dissolution of stones;

• peripheral M-holinolitiki (for example, atropine sulfate) - help to eliminate pain syndrome;

• analgesics, which also eliminate pain ("Analgin", "Baralgin", in severe cases - "Promedol");

• myotropic antispasmodics (for example, "Papaverine hydrochloride");

• antibiotics.

When cholelithiasis develops, surgery in the form of cholecystectomy is most often performed with calculous form with severe biliary colic attacks . To date, a promising method of surgical treatment is laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

In some cases, shock wave cholelithotripsy can be used for therapy, in which large concretions are fragmented into smaller fragments. It is worth noting that the treatment of cholelithiasis should be comprehensive. The volume of therapeutic methods is determined only by the doctor, taking into account the specific features of the clinical manifestations of this pathology, as well as the degree of obturation of the bile ducts.

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