Alternating consonants in the root of the word. Consonants in Russian

Consonants in Russian represent special sounds of speech. In a syllable they are combined with other sounds. In contrast to vowels, consonants do not form the vertex of the syllable. In the course of changing and improving the lexical structure, words undergo different transformations. In particular, some written signs can replace others. One of the types of transformation is the alternation of consonants in the root of the word. What it is? How does this change happen? About this further.

general information

Acoustically consonants have a relatively lower total energy than vowels, and may not have a clear formant structure. When you pronounce sounds, the voice path narrows. As a result, there is a complete or partial blockage of the air flow, which, when encountering an obstacle, begins to change its direction. In Russian distinguish noisy consonants (affricates, fricatives, explosive), a group of sonarants (lateral and flowing), semi-consonant (semi-voiced) "d". There are also sonorous sounds - trembling and nasal.

Alternating consonants

Among the most characteristic combinations are the following:

  • Zh - g (friends - girlfriend - girlfriend);
  • Ts - h - k (face - face - face);
  • С - ш - х (forest - wood, plowing - to plow);
  • Ж - д (rejuvenation - young, I go - to go);
  • Nc - ck (polished - gloss);
  • Ni - st (paved bridge);
  • Bl-b (to ruin - to ruin);
  • Ow - in (catching - catching);
  • Ml - m (feed - feed);
  • Пл - п (buy-buy) and others.

The rules of the Russian language explain such examples by the process of simplifying pronunciation. At the same time, the original sense of sounds is lost. In doubtful cases, the alternation of consonants in the root of the word is used for verification.

The initial shape of the structure

In some cases, there is some difficulty with what sound is considered to be the main one in the design. Having this or that alternation of consonants in the root of the word, it is necessary to understand what meaning is introduced into the new structure. So, for example, "girlfriend" is a derivative of "friend", and the variant "girlfriend" is formed, in all probability, under the influence of such a form as "druzhina", which itself is an oversimplification from "other, different, friend". Such changes in the future may lead to great confusion. As a result, the original sound and semantic clarity is lost.

"C - C - K"

This alternation of consonants in the root of the word has its own peculiarities. The initial (original) construction is the "face". Subsequently, after the transformation, the word "person" appears. Here, the sound "k" changes to "c". The design is changed further. The result is the word "little face". According to the variants of the interpretation, different meanings of the resulting syllables are observed. So, for example, "ko" is a "surface, a shell", "cu" is defined as "complete connection", and "chi" is "reproduction or complete continuation". As a result, the modified designs have different meanings: "jubilation, appearance" (from "face"), "larva, micha, excellent" (from "lich"), "facing, face" (from face).


Consider the alternation of consonants in the root of the word "plow." Initially, I must say that this design is derived from the "groin". "Plowing" in the ancient interpretation - cultivate a fold for reproduction and sowing. And only later the semantic transfer to cultivation and cultivation of soil in the process of agriculture was formed and embodied. Up to now, the impersonal verb form has retained the "groin" design, and personal forms are pronounced with "w". For example: "plow-plow-pashu".

Approximately by the same principle, there is an alternation of consonants in the root of the word "forest". How does the design change in this case? As soon as the "forest" begins to illustrate something "forest", but "personified", instead of "c" appears "sh". For example, "goblin". Along with this, if something extraneous is designated, directly to the forest is not inherent, in the design is preserved "c". For example, "forester".

"Ст / ск - Щ"

These same rules of the Russian language are involved in changing the design with the base "ck". At the same time, there is the same "sign of something inherent, personal, inherent in the perceiving, connected sense." For example: "gloss-polished" and "bridge-cobbled." In the first case, the sensations come forward - to the touch of a polished, then, with the luster. Together with this "gloss" is something that is irrelevant to man, but "glazed" is the embodiment of perception, of human sensation.

The same can be seen in other examples. For example, constructs such as "forgive" - "forgiveness", "bush" - "bushing" and so on. It should, however, be noted that such a change of "st-ni" takes place not only in the root, but also in the suffix. For example: "thin" - "lean", "dry" - "lean." Presumably, it was these "naturally necessary" transformations that began to be transferred to other structural elements.


In a way, a particular form of perception is seen when this sound appears in a modified design. When an "l" occurs in the composition, "structure, patency, internal state" is added to the meaning. Examples can be verbs of the third person: I love, I love, I make noise, I press, I will buy, I suffer. Moreover, in other personal forms of these constructions, the sound "l" is absent: we destroy, love, pressure, buy, make noise, endure. To explain this alternation of consonants in the root can be as follows: the appearance of "l" in the first person, that is, in constructs that reflect something "personal relating to me" - is the manifestation of one's own self, the inner state. But the rest: "you, she, they" and so on - this is external, something that does not belong to the perceiver, that is, "outside of me," so there is no "l" there either.

Changes on the "boundaries" of structural elements

However, it must be said that a change can occur only in one zone: a suffix, a prefix, or a root. That is why it is necessary to clearly understand the boundaries of the structural elements. Phonetic rules of the Russian language indicate the following: in the basis of the construction of words, for example, "boardwalk" or "waxed", there is "ni". This is due to the fact that the transformation takes place in the main structural element: "wax", "board". Here, the consonants are alternated in the root of the word. But in such constructions as "pavers", "sandstone", instead of "shch" appears "sc". This is due to the fact that the change affects the boundary of the root and suffix in the word: "dog-ok", "brus-ok".

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