Words with the suffix -enok-, -onok-: examples of words and rules

According to the educational school programs, the period when children learn words with the suffix -enok, is the third grade. Words with this suffix often cause difficulties in the aspect of word formation and writing.

These difficulties are connected, first of all, with phonetics, namely - when sounding the letter -e- gives a sound [o]. For example, the word "fox", which contains the letter -e- in the suffix, will look like this in transcription: [l`isonok]. Thus, the letter -e- when sounded after a soft consonant [c`] is transformed into a sound [o].

Therefore, it is important, when studying this topic, to pay special attention to the question of the formation of new words using the indicated suffixes, as well as the correct choice of -o and -e-in their writing.

In addition to clear rules governing the choice of a suffix in a particular word-forming situation, there are certain aspects that determine the use of this affix in terms of the semantic load that it gives to the original word. This should pay special attention.

Newly formed forms are used depending on the speech situation and the meaning of meaning, which is given to the word being formed.

Words with suffix -one / female: examples

Examples of words with a suffix are:

  • Galchonok;
  • Bear cub;
  • Owl;
  • The frog;
  • barrel;
  • Kurchonok;
  • Turchinki;
  • The hare;
  • Albumen;
  • Rabbit;
  • Doggies;
  • Kukushonok;
  • A haircut;
  • Svortchonok;
  • Tortoiseshell;
  • Spider-fish;
  • The mouse;
  • Rachonok;
  • Young man;
  • Walrus;
  • Grandsons;
  • Badger girl;
  • Kazachonok;
  • Camel;
  • Boys;
  • Dyachonok;
  • Turkey;
  • Wolf cub;
  • Rooks;
  • Shepherd's girl;
  • Kiddie.

Examples of words with the suffix -enok:

  • duckling;
  • kitten;
  • Beast;
  • The owl;
  • The devil;
  • imp;
  • Oil can;
  • An open-hearth;
  • The fox;
  • Piglet;
  • The lion cub;
  • gosling;
  • kid;
  • Voronenok;
  • Crane;
  • Eaglet;
  • baby elephant;
  • Losen;
  • Doll;
  • chick;
  • The cook;
  • kid;
  • Kangaroo;
  • Stork;
  • Rat;
  • Deer;
  • Shooting;
  • calf;
  • A tiger cub.


The derivational suffixes -one / female are used in most cases to create masculine words that denote the names of the young animals.

These affixes fulfill the word-formation function and serve to create new words with a certain lexical meaning.

However, the designation of animal names is not the only function performed by morphemes. Words with the suffixes -enok and -onok have a diminutive or caressing or disparaging meaning, and point to the childishness, non-adherence of the designated concepts. Therefore, before using a word with this suffix, it is important not only to know the rules of its writing, but also to determine the context of the speech situation in which it will be used.

For example.

Original word

Words with the suffix -enok - examples of words

Lexical meaning of the new word



Young cat

a Fox


Young fox


A hare

Baby hare



Young squirrels



Representative of the profession "shepherd" of childhood



Representative of the profession of "child laborer" or in disparagement



A child who has a nationality "Chinese"



Capacity, which has a smaller size in relation to the original concept

The names of animals with the use of another word paradigm

The word-formation suffix -one / female can be used to form not all the names of the young animals. For example, there are animal names, for the names of which use another paradigm of the word.

For example.


Baby name







a hen




Examples of animal names for the formation of which the suffixes -one / female

There are animal names, for the designation of cubs, the suffixal way of word formation can not be used .

For example:

Giraffe - a young giraffe, a hippopotamus - a hippo cub.

There is no clear rule governing the use or non-use of these suffixes with a specific word. The main reason is historical. Therefore, such words should be remembered simply to prevent further errors in word formation.

Rules for the formation of words with the suffix -e (o) nok

To determine which word with suffix -enok or with suffix -one should be written in this or that case, it is necessary to be guided by the following rules.

Words with the suffix -oneok- are written:

In the words-names of animals, the basis of which ends in hissing, under stress:

Bear - bear cub

Mouse - mouse

Hedgehog - hedgehog

A frog is a frog

Words with the suffix -enok are written:

In words with a basis for a soft consonant (except for [ч`]):

Words with suffix suffix: examples of words

Soft consonant

Tiger cub



Whether [c']





Formation of words with suffixes -one / female

To compose words with the suffix -enok, it is necessary to separate the basis of the word and, guided by the rules for the formation of new words, attach the necessary suffix to it. Thus, the scheme for the formation of a new wordform looks like this:

Basis of the word + suffix -e (o) nok + ending (if necessary)

Original word

The derivational basis

The final word

Selecting the suffix




The basis of the final word ends in a soft, sibilant [in`] - derivational suffix-child.




The basis of the final word ends in a soft, sibilant [c `] - derivational suffix-pair.




The basis ends in a sibilant [w] - word-forming suffix -one.




The basis ends in a sibilant [h] - word-building suffix -one.

Particular attention in the formation of new words should be turned to the alternation of consonant letters in the source and final words.

Words with the suffix -enot: examples of words with alternating consonants in the basis

It should be noted that in some cases, when words are formed with the given affixes, consonant sounds alternate on the morphemic seam. So, alternate:

1) Zadnevyaznye / sizzling: rabbit - rabbit, wolf - wolf cub.

2) Д / ж, д '/ ж: bear - bear cub.

3) Paired hard consonants / paired soft: fox - fox, cat - cat.

Algorithm for the formation of new words with suffixes of the /

Thus, for the correct spelling of a word, it is necessary to observe the following sequence:

1) We single out the basis of the original word.

2) Determine what the basis ends (what consonant sound is before the suffix):

  • On hissing - we write the suffix -onok;
  • On the soft not hissing or [ch`] - we write the suffix -enok.

Use of suffixes -one / female to form words that do not denote the names of the young animals

In some cases, these suffixes are used to form words that do not denote the name of the young animal.

In such situations, this suffix can indicate the representative of a particular nation, social stratum, professional. Belonging.

However, using a word with this affix in a specific speech situation, one should remember about some scornful meaning attached to this morpheme.

For example:

  • Shepherd - shepherd's girl;
  • Man is a child;
  • Cook - cook;
  • A gypsy - a gypsy girl;
  • The beast is a beast;
  • Chinese - Chinese.

If you choose -e- or -o- in the suffix for a given type of words, the same rule is used.

Declination of nouns with suffixes -one / female

Forming from the original word by affixing to the basis of this affix, we get the word with the suffix -enot and the zero ending, or the same wordform with the suffix -onok.

For example:

  • Elephant - elephant calf;
  • Cat is a kitten;
  • Gal - galochonok □;
  • Farm laborer.

When declining the nouns formed with the help of these suffixes, the vowel "o" falls out.

For example:

The squirrel is a squirrel, the girl is a little girl, the devil is a devil.

Sometimes when nouns are formed, the root vowel also falls out, so we get a word different in the sound composition of the stem from the original word.

For example:

  • A lion, but: a lion cub;
  • The eagle, but: the eagle.

Formation of the plural of nouns with suffixes -enok / -oneok

When the plural of nouns is formed, this affix in the plural is replaced by -at / -yat.

For example:

  • Lion - lion cub - But: lion cubs, lion;
  • Mammoth - mammoth - But: mammoth, mammoth;
  • Hedgehog - little girl - But: hedgehog, hedgehog;
  • Rabbit - rabbit - But: rabbit, rabbit.

When the words are plural in the plural after -at / -yat the end of the corresponding case is used.

For example:




A cub, a hedgehog


Lion, hedgehog


Lions, ezhatam


Lion, hedgehog


Lions, hedgehogs


Lions, hedgehogs

This rule applies only to the words denoting the names of the young, as well as to the words of the hairs (honey agarics, honey), and oiler (butter, oil). For other words with this suffix, this rule does not apply.


Barrel - barrel - But: kegs, kegs.















Thus, the rule for using the suffixes -one / female is simple. The only problem can arise with the memorization of words that are inaccessible to the word-formation rules.

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