What is "walking". History and meaning of the word

What does the word "walking" mean, and when it first appeared. History and lexical meanings are discussed in this article.

History of occurrence

The word "circulation" got into Russian from the Old Slavonic language - the first written language in Russia. This is indicated by the alternation of -j- and -zhd- in the root (the Russian word "go"). And since there were borrowings from church books - the first known literature of Russia - then they stylistically correspond with a class of high vocabulary.

An example of a word with a bright stylistic coloring can serve as the Old Slavonic "molek," which can be found more in spiritual literature than in ordinary life. Russian "milk", on the contrary, spread in colloquial speech and after the reforms of the Russian language was established in the literary version of it.

A different situation occurred with the word in the article. "What is walking" is a question not only for the sensible, but also for the dictionary of literary concepts.

The meaning of the word in modern Russian

The lexical meaning of the word "walking" in a general sense, like any word in the Russian language, is reflected in its root. In this case, it is the root of the move, with alternating consonant sounds (hozh-khozh-). Such a variety of root variants of root words is due to historical reasons: some words existed in the pre-literate period, that is, actually in Russian, and some came from the Old Slavonic.

If you build the word-building nest of the word "walking", then the root of the word "walk" will be the producing basis, and the lexical meaning is the action or person that reflects the meaning of the verb. Thus, the definition of the word "walking" in modern language: this is a noun denoting the process from the verb "to walk."

Since there was a word from the language of Church Slavonic books, it had a religious coloration, like the root word "walker". Walkers are those who walked, that is, a journey on foot. What could be the first walks of people, mostly tied to daily work on the ground? The most common "vagabonds" are those who seek truth, that is, pilgrims. Thus, the initial meaning of the word in question is related to the search for spiritual knowledge, insight, through a long walk through unfamiliar lands.

However, there is another meaning of the word "walking" in Old Russian literature, as a section of literary disciplines.

Genre idiosyncrasy of ancient Russia

"Walking" or "walking" is the epic genre of the literature of Ancient Rus, which describes travel. Great merit brought in the study of these works, in terms of literary criticism, Nikolai Ivanovich Prokofiev, a Soviet medevist. He also classified the walkings by type, depending on their semantic load. There are only five of them: travelers, skyski, documentary and artistic works of an essay nature, article lists and legendary stories.

The first group (travelers) is a short guidebook with practical advice on how to get to some place. Article lists are of a business nature, as they describe foreign trips of ambassadors to diplomatic missions. Legendary or fictional stories are works of a publicistic genre that could contain a retelling of the subjects of Scripture and apocryphal stories.

The group of walks, which has the popular name "skaski", is a story of Russian people who visited other countries, or strangers who came to Russia. Such stories were recorded by the narrator, verbally reproducing them. Personal impressions of the narrator reflect the essence of the fifth group of walks, documentary and artistic works. They are the most interesting from the point of view of literary criticism, because to a greater extent than other types of walking, they meet the requirements of artistic expressiveness.

Interest in literary criticism

What is the circulation in Old Russian literature? For historians and linguists, all categories of this genre are of interest, while for literary studies, practical notes of travelers or the business tone of article lists are not particularly interesting. The main interest is concentrated on documentary and artistic works, which contain the narrator's impressions. Personal emotions in the text of the work - a pledge of the presence of expressive vocabulary, an important component of the literary and artistic language.

Monuments of ancient Russian literature

The most famous and oldest surviving literary works of a travel character is "The Life and Walk of the Hegumen of Daniel from the Russian Land," referring, like the Tale of Bygone Years, to the 12th century. The work is devoted to the difficult journey of the Russian hegumen over the territory of the newly formed Jerusalem state (Palestine) during the period of the Crusades. The author also describes meetings with the local king who honored the hegumen with his attention.

Understand that such a walk is possible and for such monuments of ancient and medieval literature as "The Journey to Constantinople" by Dobryny Yadrejkovic, "The Walking" by Tryphon Korobeinikov, the merchant Vasily Poznyakova or the monks Iona Little and Arseniy Sukhanov.

The best example of walking is the product of the 15th century - "Walking through the Three Seas" by Athanasius Nikitin. It tells about the journey of a Tver merchant to India, but is deprived, unlike the previous models of the genre, religiously oriented. This, perhaps, is one of the most famous examples of this genre of medieval literature, answering the question what is circulation in literary criticism.

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