The cultivation of useful agricultural crops man began to engage in an unimaginably long time. The culture of farming developed constantly, new methods of processing and fertilizing soils, sowing and harvesting, combating weeds and pests appeared. The irrigation system has also been modified several times - after all, no plant can not live without moisture! One of the most useful innovations was drip irrigation
What it is
We owe a useful invention to the Israeli farmers, because it was in the Promised Land that the drip irrigation system was invented, tested and implemented in wide practice. What is it? Water with this method of irrigation is fed to plants in small portions in the root system zone . Adjustment occurs by means of special devices (droppers-dispensers). The system of drip irrigation is particularly advantageous in those areas where there is a shortage of water, and the laying of water pipes is difficult due to various reasons. Moreover, using it, it is more convenient to distribute fertilizers, you can not be afraid of erosion, and the crop with its application ripens faster. Less weeds with such watering plague farmers - that's another advantage of the method. And man-hours, physical forces are saved, they are spent much more rationally. It's one thing when a household plot with buckets "patrol" bypasses, and quite another, when heavy work is done for you by the drip irrigation system!
Scope and list of construction details
First of all, this method of irrigation was used for greenhouses. Then it was transferred to the open ground, and not only in small private farms, but also in large agro-associations. The system of drip irrigation has perfectly proved itself in vegetable growing and truck farming, horticulture, viticulture. It consists of such structural elements as a device for collecting / accumulating water, filters (not always), pipes, drip strips, a fertigation node (an element where fertilizers are added and fed together with water during irrigation). Droplet strips come in two types - pipes and tapes. The first are special tubes made of polyethylene, to which are attached internal or external droppers. The latter are made (glued) from strips of the same material and have natural lumens through which water seeps. Both types of material are good when bulk drip irrigation systems are made by hand. For the needs of small household plots, fittings and hoses or drip tapes are more suitable .
The simplest design
On the advantages of this method, we already said: water is saved, comes to plants in the right temperature regime, does not spray on the leaves, not allowing thereby to appear fungal diseases. The moisture comes exactly to the roots, without spreading around the dirt and dampness. And between landings the land is dry, because there are almost no weeds there. In order for the uninitiated to understand, we will explain: even the simplest drip irrigation systems, made with their own hands from a barrel and ordinary hoses, filled with rainwater, will provide moisture for a whole 5 days with a 10-meter bed. And this is enough, including cabbage with cucumbers, which are very demanding to watering. What do you need to build the most elementary such a system? First, a large barrel. Raise it about a meter high. It is advisable to crane beforehand. Put a small hose on it. It is needed to attach the fitting if a branched irrigation system is required . And then connect the usual rubber water pipes, which stretch the garden. You can connect several segments, if only not holey. And muffle loose ends, for example, with wooden choppers, to avoid water loss.
How to make holes correctly
Now, in fact, drip irrigation. Take the usual self-tapping screws - they will easily fit into both plastic and rubber. Drill holes with the help of the planted plants. Only not through! Then a little twist, but not until the end. And then open the tap a little and adjust the head. How to make drip irrigation accurate: it is enough that in a couple of seconds, 1 drop of water drops into the ground (for moisture-loving crops, for less resistant to heat it can be less often). This is achieved by twisting the screws. During the day, you should observe how quickly water is absorbed, and adjust the frequency of drops, adjusting to the plants. If you connect watering to the water supply, turn the tap slowly, since the pressure in the system can be high. And then adjust the head of water, depending on the needs of the planted crops.
As with any mechanism, this drip irrigation needs to be monitored, because holes with self-tapping screws are eventually clogged with debris, rust. Naturally, water will come to the plantings less and less. It will become noticeable on a wet spot on the ground. What should be done in this case: simply unscrew the screws, clean them and holes, then insert into place. Once a week, carefully inspect the system and make preventive maintenance on time! If you use drip tapes, then problems with pollution will be much less. And if you install a special filter, you do not have to worry about the system for a long time.
Let's compare what the factory system of drip irrigation consists of. The price for such devices can be different and starts from several hundred rubles. So, for example, the popular kit BP1 Barrel set will cost you almost 4000 rubles. The cost is determined and the proposed brand of products. From homemade they differ, of course, but they are far from always convenient and adjusted to the needs of the gardener. So, in the set for barrel watering you can find a pump, a hose, a watering gun, connectors. A rainwater set is used. For greenhouses, the Israeli Mgs48 system is offered on the market. Elgo, calculated for approximately 48 droppers. Its average cost is from 1800 rubles. Homemade systems will cost much less!