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Where does the river Ob come from? Where does the river Ob flow?

The Ob river originates from the confluence of the mountain streams of Biya and Katun, near the southern outskirts of Russia, near the village of Fominskoye, a suburb of Biysk, Altai Territory. It is an artery of Western Siberia and carries its waters in a country such as Russia.

River Ob

In the north-eastern part of the Asian continent, in the Altai Territory, near the administrative border with the Republic of Altai, there are two mountain rivers-beauties - Katun and Biya. They give rise to a great, full-flowing river with the name Ob not yet unraveled. As one of the assumptions about the toponymy of this geographical name, he is associated with the word "both".

Where does the river Ob come from? This place is marked on maps as the northern latitude is 52.5 degrees and the eastern longitude is 85 degrees. The Ob flows through the territories of five regions, crossing the West Siberian Plain from the southeast to the north. The mouth of the river is the 8,000-km-long Ob Bay, the Gulf of the Kara Sea. The place where the Ob flowed, is beyond the northern polar circle. It is marked by coordinates at 66.5 degrees north latitude and 69 degrees east longitude.

According to the location of the estuary there is no disagreement. Everyone knows where the river flows into. Obi is credited with different data on its length. Some scientists summarize the length of the actual river bed with the length of its left tributary of the Irtysh. It turns out a very impressive distance - 5140 km. Others suggest the length of the Ob River to be counted from the sources of the Katun as a longer river (688 km) than Biya (301 km), and receive a different meaning. But one can not belittle the importance of the independent and unique watercourses of the planet - the Irtysh and the Katun. In addition, the Irtysh mostly belongs to Kazakhstan. It will be correct to consider the length of the watercourse to be 3,650 km - from the confluence of Katun and Biya to the Obskaya Bay, where the Ob river flows into. The same data are given in the State Water Register. There, too, a description of the location where the Ob River flows: Obskaya Bay of the Kara Sea, entering the basin of the Arctic Ocean.

Hydrological regime

So, the length of the watercourse is 3650 km. According to this parameter, the Ob River is the second among the rivers of Russia, second only to Lena.

The Obsky catchment area is almost 3 million square meters. Km. From this impressive territory, which is the first in importance among Russian rivers, a huge amount of surface water flow is formed. To Ob Bay, where the Ob flows, 357 cu. Km of river water.

The average annual flow (volume of water in cubic m / s) is recorded by long-term observations at gauging stations: 1470 - at the city of Barnaul (upper reaches), 12 300 - near the city of Salekhard, near the Ob Bay, where the Ob River flows. The maximum water flow in the stream (during floods) recorded at the gauging stations is approximately: Barnaul - 9690, Salekhard - 42 800 (cubic m / s).

More than 161 thousand creeks, small, medium and large rivers carry their waters to the Ob. The total length of the tributaries is 740 thousand km. Most of them (94%) are small rivers (not more than 10 km long). Large tributaries longer than 1000 km: Irtysh, Vasyugan and Bolshoy Yugan - they flow from the left bank; Chulym and Ket are right-bank ones.

Depth of the Ob River - from 2-6 m at the beginning, near Biysk, reaches 25 m near the city of Novosibirsk (near the hydroelectric station), decreases to 8 m near the mouth of Tom and again increases to 15 m in the upper reaches of the Ob Bay, where the river flows . The Ob are characterized by small slopes of the terrain: from 4.5 cm at the beginning to 1.5 cm (per 1 km of length) in the lower reaches of the current. The width of the floodplain varies. It is 5 km at the beginning and 50 km in the Ob Bay area, where the river flows. Obi is characterized by the features of a flat river with a flood of spring flood and autumn floods.

Economic importance

In conditions of inaccessibility due to swampiness of the territories of the West Siberian lowland, the Ob since 1844 is used for transport purposes. Navigation lasts up to 190 days a year. In Novosibirsk in 1961 a hydroelectric power station was put into operation - the main energy supplier for the population and enterprises of the Siberian Federal District. The favorite resting place of Novosibirsk people is the beaches of the reservoir, which was formed during the erection of the dam of the hydroelectric power station. From it, water is taken for drinking, economic and industrial enterprises of the Novosibirsk agglomeration. The river is used for fishing - it contains valuable species of sturgeon, whitefish and partial fish. The discharge of neutralized and treated sewage of industrial and communal enterprises is carried out in the Ob. In the Altai Territory, the rivers are irrigated by irrigation of agricultural lands, entering the Kulunda irrigation system.

Cities on the Ob

Since ancient times, people have settled along the banks of rivers. Did not stay aside and the Mother-Ob - near her a lot of settlements. We will name the largest in terms of population. At the beginning of the river is Biysk, founded in 1709, with a population of 200 thousand people. Then - Barnaul, the center of the Altai Territory, was established in 1730, the population - more than 600 thousand people. Novosibirsk - the main city of the Siberian Federal District, was founded in 1893, it is inhabited by more than 1.5 million people. The Tomsk region is the port of Kolpashevo (1938, 23 thousand people). Cities of oilmen of the Khanty-Mansiysk District with a population of more than 300 thousand people. In each - Nizhnevartovsk (1908) and Surgut (1594). The center of the Yamalo-Nenets District - the city of Salekhard (1595, 50 thousand people) is located on the right bank of the Ob River. Opposite him on the left bank is located Labytnangi (1900, 26 thousand people).

Summing up

Among the Russian watercourses, the great river Ob, in its main characteristics, occupies:

  • The 1st place - for the area of the catchment basin - 2 million 990 thousand square meters. Km.
  • 2 nd place - in the length of the main channel - 3650 km.
  • 3rd place - according to the annual total volume of the flow - 357 cu. Km.

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