In ancient times people had to manually chop the crops. Today, thanks to the technical development of modern man harvesting special machines, which are put on the nozzle called the header. This greatly accelerates the performance of agricultural work and allows you to quickly collect a large amount of harvest. What is done with a header is described in this article.
What is a reaper
When harvesting sunflower, corn and most crops, a header is used. It is a special agricultural device for mowing plants.
The header is a metal product that is attached to the combine. The cutting elements of the nozzle are made of cast iron or high-strength steel. On the fixed parts are attached opposing plates. The moving knife of the unit consists of triangular plates. During the reciprocating movements of cutting elements of the header, the crop is mowed.
The classical and basic purpose of the nozzle is the cutting of plants. But this is not the only solution. What do they do with the cutter yet, apart from cutting the stems? The fact is that there are two types of machines: platform and screw type. The first nozzle is used only for mowing. A screw auger is used both for its intended purpose and for harvesting.
The header is used to perform such functions:
- Transportation of sloping mass;
- Laying the harvested crop.
All the mechanisms on the market are used for harvesting. But, depending on the model, the nozzle can perform additional functions. For example, leguminous harvester is used to collect and stack green peas, beans, cereal grains, sugar beet. It is also used to cut the fields on which leguminous crops were grown. This is the answer to the question about what is done with a header.
Types of header
To date, producers of agricultural machinery produce such types of harvesters:
The hinged header is used for separate harvesting and is designed for mowing and laying of cut grain plants in rolls. The mechanism is equipped with an ejection window and a helix-free reel with strong tines. Hinged reapers are hung on combine harvesters of different types. They are mainly used as a nozzle to the models "Yenisei", "Sibiryak" and "Niva".
Mounted header provides:
- High productivity of mowing work;
- Mechanization of harvesting;
- Quality roll laying.
The trailed header is transported by the tractor as a trolley, which prevents the destruction and deformation of the nozzle during operation. This mechanism is very simple and reliable in use and is used in all soil areas. The trailer type of the mechanism performs the same work as does another type of reaper.
Self-propelled harvesters allow two-phase harvesting of grain crops. That is, first the crops are mowed and formed into the rolls, which lie on the field until the harvesting machine has picked them up. This machine is used to collect cereals, oilseeds , fodder plants and for the preparation of haylage.
The self-propelled machine is characterized by high labor productivity and a high level of safety. Its main advantages are an increase in the harvesting time, a uniform ripening of grain crops, a reduction in quantitative losses during mowing, and the ability to double the rolls in the case of low yields.
This mechanism is an indispensable tool in the season of harvesting pancake crops. It is a separate attachment, which is attached to the harvester.
Manufacturers of such machines constantly develop new models, in which innovative technologies are introduced. Thanks to the constant renewal, this combine harvester is adapted to use in various conditions.
All models of the sunflower machine are equipped with special parts that allow harvesting in areas with a difficult terrain, different types of soil, and also in conditions of different humidity of the crops being cut. This nozzle allows you to collect plants even in difficult weather conditions. For example, with frost, strong gusts of wind or during rain.
Due to its technical characteristics, the header for harvesting sunflower is often used to mow corn and some types of sorghum.
Important advantages of the product:
- Availability of baskets for seeds, conveyor for stems and vibrotransporter;
- The possibility to regulate the width of the channel along which the conveyor moves, which makes it possible to collect different varieties of sunflower;
- Adjustment of the speed of movement.
The equipment is used for harvesting rye, wheat and oats. It is a separate unit, which is used in combination with a combine harvester, tractor or self-propelled chassis.
A reaper for cereals is used for single- and two-phase harvesting. With a single-phase process, the mechanism mows down the plants and immediately feeds the cut mass to the threshing apparatus of the combine. In two-phase harvesting, grain-type roll-type reapers are used, which first lay the beveled stems in the rolls, and then they are assembled by the combine for subsequent processing.
The designs of different models of grain harvester can vary. Thus, depending on the location of the cutting parts, the front and side aggregates are distinguished. Also, different types of nozzles can form rolls into one, two or three streams. It depends on the number of built-in conveyors.