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What is the natural zone? Types and features

What is a natural zone, every schoolboy knows, and those who have forgotten this concept, can read it by reading this article.

Natural areas: definition and types

The globe consists of all kinds of natural complexes, localized on different climatic zones. Despite the diversity of landscapes, plants and animals, the individual territories of the Earth are similar. They are united in a separate group of natural zones. This is the largest graduation of the entire natural complex on the planet.

Natural zones and their features

Natural zones are located in accordance with geographical zones, adapted to certain parameters of temperature and humidity. In general, they occupy certain latitudes, but the specific area depends on the distance to the ocean and the surrounding terrain. The exception is mountain natural zones, the characteristics of which are influenced by the height of localization. Closer to the top, the temperature becomes lower, so zoning is located in the direction from the equator to the poles. Below is a natural complex, similar to that on the plain. The higher the mountain massif, the more localized northern landscapes are at the top.

What is a natural zone not on land? In the ocean there is also a natural complex, differing in its climatic location and depth of occurrence. Its boundaries are vague, compared to the land.

Natural zones of the tropics and subtropics, deserts

For the forests of the equator and the tropics located in Africa, South America and Asia, high humidity and temperature are typical. What is the natural zone in these areas of the globe? It is a complex of evergreen trees with pronounced multi-tieredness (from small bushes to giant trees). The accelerated circulation of substances leads to the formation of an ultra-fertile layer of soil, which is rapidly consumed. In the tropics and subtropics, a zone of dry forests is singled out, where trees discard their foliage in a hot period.

The description of the natural zone includes savannas - a transition zone from tropic forests to northern landscapes with pronounced light forests, constantly high temperatures and infrequent precipitation. For this complex is characterized by a dry period, as a result, there is a migration of animals to water bodies.

Evergreen forests of the Mediterranean climate are predominantly composed of plants with stiff leaves. There are many coniferous trees, characterized by mild winter. Most species of animals in this natural area are on the verge of extinction.

The low level of humidity of deserts and semi-deserts located in the temperate and tropical zones led to the formation of various adaptations to severe conditions in plants and animals. Deserts of a warm climate are divided into sandy, stony and clayey. Their soils are saturated with mineral substances, but they have few organic substances.

Zonality of the Northern Hemisphere in the Temperate and Polar Belts

Steppe and forest-steppe zones located in the subtropical and temperate zones are distinguished by hot and dry summers, cold winters and the most fertile soils (chernozems). Here there are rodents, birds of prey, small ungulates.

Broad-leaved, mixed forests and taiga are natural zones of temperate climate localized in the northern hemisphere. They are characterized by a cold winter. In the taiga zone, summer is warm and short, for forests slightly south of the warmer period is longer, but the average temperature is lower. Precipitation in the taiga is more abundant than in mixed forests. In these natural zones, live predators, insectivorous birds.

The tundra and forest-tundra occupy the territory of the subpolar and polar zones. Vegetation is low-growing with a superficial root system due to poor soil, many mosses and lichens, mostly migratory birds, most of the territory is covered with permafrost.

Animals in the arctic desert predominantly live in water, in a warm period that lasts for several months, birds fly in. This is the natural zone of the northern hemisphere.

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