Eyes - this is one of the main senses. Thanks to them all living beings have the opportunity to perceive the world around them. It is believed that vision provides us with about 90% of incoming information. As is known, in order to see objects normally, the combined work of both eyes is necessary. Thanks to binocular vision, we have the ability to perceive not only the size and shape of the image, but also its location in space. Unlike people, some living things (birds, reptiles, horses) see objects with each eye separately. In other words, monocular vision is characteristic of them. In some cases, this is observed in humans. Since such an ability is not peculiar to a person, this type of vision is considered pathological and requires treatment.
What does monocular vision mean?
Science, dealing with vision problems, is called ophthalmology. It covers not only eye diseases, but also studies the development, different types of vision in humans and other living things. For example, you can learn about this feature of birds, like monocular vision. This type of vision allows some animals to distinguish objects with each eye individually. It is known that the sight of birds is several times better than that of humans. Due to the fact that their eyes are located on the sides, they see most of the space around them. The field of view of birds is about 300 degrees. This gives them the opportunity to see images not only in front and side of themselves, but also from behind. Proceeding from this, monocular vision means the ability to perceive objects with one eye. Normally, it occurs in all birds except for owls, as well as in many animals.
The difference between monocular and binocular vision
Thanks to ophthalmology, one can answer the question about what distinguishes monocular vision from binocular vision. Each of these types of vision has its advantages and disadvantages. Monocular vision allows you to get information only about the shape and size of the image. Nevertheless, this type of vision is necessary for animals, because thanks to this they can examine objects simultaneously from two sides. As a result, their field of view increases. It is necessary for hunting and protection in the animal world.
The structure of the organ of vision in humans differs from birds and animals. The vision center is in the cerebral cortex. Thanks to the cross of nerves, the information received from each eye is transformed into a single image. That is, a person has binocular vision. In addition to the fact that this type of vision is distinguished by the ability to view the subject at once with two eyes, it also has other features. Binocular vision is characterized by the perception of the image in space. By this means the ability to distinguish, at what distance from the eyes is the object, it is voluminous or flat.
Pathologies in which monocular vision is observed
As is known, both monocular and binocular vision occur in humans. Nevertheless, the disunity between the vision, which is considered the norm for animals, is a pathology for a person. Monocular vision in humans is 2 kinds. In the first case, the ability to see only one eye constantly (right or left) is implied. This can be observed with one-sided blindness. Another kind of monocular vision implies an alternate vision of the right or the left eye. This type occurs in diplopia. The cause may be congenital eye disorders or trauma.
Diagnosis of types of vision
It is important to diagnose in time not only the monocular vision itself, but also its cause. Often the source of the problem are eye injuries, vascular disorders, congenital anomalies. Therefore, in addition to instrumental methods, it is necessary to ask the patient in detail about when the ability to see has changed. The type of vision can be established when performing a four-point color test. This method determines the presence of mono-, binocular or simultaneous vision.
Before each eye of the person establish a different color filter (red and green). At some distance from the organs of vision is a screen with 4 circles. Each of them has a coloration (white, red and 2 green). Depending on how many circles the patient sees, the ophthalmologist makes a conclusion about the type of vision. Normally, a person discerns all 4 figures. In this case, the white circle for it acquires a red or green color. With monocular vision, the subject sees only 2 or 3 figures on the screen. In some cases, the patient notes 5 circles. This is rare and typical for a simultaneous (both mono- and binocular) type of vision. This deviation from the norm does not require treatment.
Why does strabismus develop with binocular vision?
It is known that during the newborn period the child does not have binocular vision. Its formation begins at the age of 1.5-2 months. At this time, disconnected vision is considered the norm. At 3-4 months the baby has a reflex formation, according to which the images received by two eyes are perceived as one. Nevertheless, the process of forming binocular vision ends only at the age of 12 years. Proceeding from this, a disease like strabismus refers to childhood pathologies. In this case, the child can not focus on a particular subject. The movements of the organs of vision can not occur simultaneously, one eye squints and mows in bright light. The cause of this pathology is a wrong or belated formation of a binocular vision. This is observed with myopia, astigmatism or farsightedness.
Binocular vision with strabismus: treatment of pathology
In order to form a binocular vision in a child, it is necessary to diagnose the strabismus in time and start treatment. First of all, you need to identify the cause of the pathology. This is required to select the method of restoring binocular vision. Treatment of strabismus begins with a set of exercises necessary to strengthen the eye muscles. In order for a child to properly perform a charge for vision, the parents or the doctor must be monitored. In some cases, special glasses are shown. If the child has amblyopia, then it is necessary to increase the load on one of the organs of vision. To do this, one of the glasses (on the side of the healthy eye) is glued.
Methods of recovery of binocular vision
Methods of treatment of binocular vision can be divided into physical and surgical. In the first case, it is meant to perform exercises for the eye muscles. They need to be done regularly, several times a day. In some cases, this method is sufficient. Most often, in addition to charging for the eyes, you need to wear glasses. They help to get rid of the cause of strabismus (myopia, astigmatism, farsightedness). Another method of treating binocular treatment is surgical intervention. It is used in cases where correction of strabismus by other methods is impossible.