Wood has long been known to mankind as one of the best building materials. Its characteristics make it possible to apply it in many spheres of the national economy. This material is reliable, durable, endowed with aesthetic qualities. Also, wood is famous for its ecological purity. Therefore, the field of its application is very wide. Various products are made from wood. What is sawnwood, what is their purpose, should be considered in more detail. The variety of types of such products makes it possible to apply them on a variety of objects.
To date, there is a huge number of different types of lumber. They are produced by sawing along the fibers. The correct processing requires all lumber. GOST 8486-86 and 2695-83 are the main ones in the manufacture of such products. However, this industry is regulated by many other standards. Their implementation is a necessary condition in the process of creating quality products.
In addition to its positive qualities, wood is also known for its shortcomings. It is susceptible to various disruptions, decay, processes of vital activity of insects and microorganisms. Also this material can be deformed under the influence of environmental conditions. To avoid all these troubles, correct treatment is required. To understand what sawn timber is, you need to familiarize yourself with the conditions of their preparation for processing.
Each lumber has special properties. The wood species is of great importance. Both coniferous and deciduous varieties are used. Their cost depends on the inherent characteristics of the material.
Pine is considered one of the inexpensive varieties of wood. This material contains a large number of resins. Therefore, it is not used at elevated ambient temperatures. Also, the strength characteristics of the pine are quite low.
Larch has good resistance to the influence of fungus, microorganisms and insects. She is not afraid of moisture. It is actively used in almost all areas of construction.
Beautiful oak texture. It is very durable, which makes it in demand for construction and decoration. Ash is resistant to mechanical influences due to its elasticity. This type of wood, like birch, is easy to handle. Therefore, various elements are made from it, even at home.
The properties of each kind of material are necessarily taken into account during processing.
Degree of processing
Before sawing, the wood is subjected to additional preparation. It is dried to a certain level. The area of its application depends on this. If the moisture content of the wood after processing does not exceed 10%, it is dry lumber. It is made of parquet, shields, etc.
The universal material is dried up to 11-15% wood. From it, floorboards, platbands, skirting boards, etc. are produced. If the material is characterized by a humidity level of 18%, it is used for exterior finishing, trussing system installation, etc.
The drying process is performed under natural conditions or in a chamber at elevated temperatures. Each of these processes requires the correct execution of each operation.
Method of processing
There are two main ways to saw logs. It can be radial or tangential. In the first case, the incision extends toward the center of the annual rings. The bars in this case are obtained in different sizes. Their width is limited by the diameter of the tree itself.
The tangential section is tangent to the annual rings. This makes it possible to obtain at the output a lot of fragments of identical cross-section and size.
All deciduous and coniferous sawn timber is divided into unedged, planed or edged. In the first case, the product contains untreated zones that are only released from the bark and knots.
The edging material is cut parallel to each other. This is a rectangular shape of the products. Planed products from at least one surface have no roughness. They are contoured.
In the form that the product acquires after processing, several types of sawn timber are distinguished. The scope of application depends on their dimensions. Specific features of the form are both sawn softwood and hardwood.
The first in the presented classification is the cant. Its thickness exceeds 100 mm. This is one of the most demanded sawn timber. On the contrary, the boards are limited in thickness. This characteristic does not exceed 100 mm.
The bar has a thickness of not more than 100 mm. But for this product another parameter is important. Its width should be less than twice the thickness.
Obapol has a cut only on one side. The width can be different. Also recently, for decorative purposes, this type of sawn timber, such as croaker, has been used. This is an intermediate option between the obafol and the board. It has only one flat plane. On the other hand, its surface is unworked and has a regular semicircular shape. Also for different types of sawing include a lining, block house, planken and lag.
Varieties of sawing sawn timber
Studying what sawnwood is, one can not but pay attention to the purpose of each variety. The beam can be glued, conventional, windowed or imitated. There are survey items related to this species. Their cross section is no less than 120 x 120 mm. They have a cut in the thin end. It is not less than 1/3 of the side of the bar.
Board is sex, deck, terrace. For each field of application, it is treated appropriately.
The bar can be ordinary or planed. The remaining lumber differ in size, shape. The scope of their application may be different. They are used both inside and outside the premises.
It should also be taken into account that the length of sawing wood should not exceed 5 m for hardwoods, and 6.5 m for coniferous trees. Their scope and features depend on the area of application in the construction industry.
Application of coniferous sawn timber
Coniferous wood, as a rule, is characterized by softness and lightness. But there are also quite strong, heavy representatives of this group (for example, yew). This material has resin motions and a fairly large number of knots. This is a cheaper variety of wood.
Sawn softwood is used in carpentry, as well as in construction. But most often these materials are suitable for finishing dry rooms with the usual temperature regime. For external work, such wood is treated with special impregnations.
Application of hardwoods
Most often, hardwood lumber has a high hardness. They are denser, heavier than coniferous species. Such materials are less susceptible to adverse environmental effects. Therefore, their cost is quite high.
Sawn timber from deciduous trees is used to create rafters, staircases inside a private house, walls and partitions in rooms, and also for ceilings.
Lime, poplar or birch is not used for the manufacture of load-bearing structures or finishing floors. They are soft and light.
Having become acquainted with the concept of what sawnwood is, what kinds of species are there, one can orient in the designation of products. To date, there are a lot of them.