What is disinfection: types, methods, main means used

Pathogenic microorganisms and bacteria have a property for a long time to remain and multiply in conditions of the foci of infection. An increase in their harmful effect on a person can be carried out without the presence of a carrier of the disease.

To combat this, a set of measures was developed, which is called "disinfection," or "disinfection." What is disinfection and how it struggles with the pathogenic microflora, we will understand further.

The concept of disinfection and its types

Microorganisms have the ability to multiply under the influence of favorable factors for them, and therefore create conditions that are dangerous for the human body.

Disinfection is a specially developed method for controlling microbes in order to minimize their amount in the environment. Unfortunately, it is impossible to completely destroy the pathogenic flora and its disputes with the help of the measures used, but it is possible to minimize their number.

There are three main types of disinfection - preventive, final and current. These types of disinfection are used in various conditions - at home, in medical and school-preschool institutions, hotel complexes, institutions of trade and nutrition.

What is disinfection with a preventive goal? With the help of these measures, the pathogenic flora is destroyed to prevent the appearance of a foci of infection.

Preventive decontamination is carried out daily, regularly, using special means of disinfection. After each procedure, the specialized documentation is filled in, which records the time, place and chemical used.

Disinfection in foci of infection

The final method of disinfection is based on the destruction of microbes at the site of the emergence of the focus of infection after hospitalization of the patient. Most often, these activities are used to identify dangerous infectious diseases:

  • Viral hepatitis;
  • Rotavirus infections;
  • Dysentery, salmonellosis and other intestinal infections;
  • pediculosis;
  • scabies.

Disinfection measures are carried out after hospitalization of the patient by representatives of the sanitary and epidemiological service. Also, final disinfection is mandatory during the demolition of the building of the medical institution, its reorganization, re-planning, and also mandatory in maternity hospitals, tuberculosis and infectious hospitals.

Measures to prevent the spread of the disease with an existing focus of infection, called current disinfection. Disinfection of the material and household items with which the sick person is in contact is carried out in order to interrupt possible ways of transmission of the infection. It is held at home and in hospitals.

Methods of disinfection

At the moment, there are different methods of disinfection :

  • chemical;
  • physical;
  • mechanical.

When using mechanical disinfection, the object is cleared of dust and dirt. This method can not be used as a method of choice, but it is included in the complex of other measures.

What is physical disinfection? This method is based on the use of high temperature and steam conditions, currents of high frequency, ultraviolet radiation. It is often used in institutions of medical and sanatorium type for the destruction of microorganisms sensitive to high temperatures. Disinfect with this method not only small items, but also mattresses, pillows, clothes and shoes of the patient.

Carrying out disinfection by means of a chemical method is based on the use of special active substances. These drugs are released in the form of solutions, powders, gels, soaps, capsules. Means of disinfection are used for pouring, rubbing, falling asleep objects that need treatment, immersion and irrigation. All objects that can be treated with liquid agents are irrigated or immersed in a solution. Those that are not subject to the effects of liquids are rubbed twice.

Disinfection of premises

Disinfection of premises is necessary not only in institutions of medical type, but also in any general building. Daily fighting with pathological microflora minimizes the possibility of a foci of infection.

Most often, disinfection of premises is carried out with the help of chemical means in combination with a mechanical method and using ultraviolet radiation. All the furniture that is in the room is exposed to processing, irrigation or rubbing with rags soaked in solution. The floor and walls are also carefully handled. If there is some transportation transport in the room, for example, a patient transport cart or a vegetable transport cart, all of them must also be processed.

In the conditions of medical and sanatorium institutions, after treatment in the premises, bactericidal lamps are included . They are necessary to reduce the number of pathogens in the air and on exposed surfaces.

Features of the use of chemical disinfectants

The means for disinfection is used strictly according to the requirements of SanPin. A drug is chosen that has the least toxic effect on the human body and at the same time has the most harmful effect on bacteria. Most often, the products have a neutral odor and hypoallergenic properties.

Bleach is considered to be the most common substance , however, when working with it, individual safety measures must be observed. Prepare the solution preferably immediately before use, and store in a place that does not have access to sunlight.

The main groups of disinfectants

Depending on the active substance that is included in the composition, all disinfectants are divided into groups:

  1. Alcohol disinfectants - ethyl alcohol, methanol.
  2. Means based on hydrogen peroxide - peroxide + catamine.
  3. Chlorinated substances - chloramine, bleach, deactin.
  4. Derivatives of peracetic acid.
  5. Facilities based on HR - benzalkonium chloride.
  6. Preparations for the chemical method - formaldehyde, alcohols, surfactants, halogens.

All drugs are more effective against microorganisms, but are not used to destroy their spores.

More detailed information about what is disinfection can be obtained through regulated regulatory documents of the sanitary and epidemiological service.

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