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What is CMB?

Despite the use of modern instruments and the latest methods of studying the universe, the question of its appearance is still open. This is not surprising, given its age: according to recent data, it is from 14 to 15 billion years. Obviously, since then very few evidence of the grandiose processes of the Universe scale that once took place have remained. Therefore, to approve something no one dares, confining ourselves to hypotheses. However, one of them has recently received a very significant argument - the relic radiation.

In 1964, two employees of a well-known laboratory doing radio monitoring of the Echo satellite, having access to the appropriate ultra-sensitive equipment, decided to test some of their theories about their own radio emission from certain space objects.

In order to eliminate possible interference from terrestrial sources, it was decided to use a wavelength of 7.35 cm. However, after turning on and tuning the antenna, a strange phenomenon was recorded: in the entire Universe, a certain noise was recorded, a constant background component. It did not depend on the position of the Earth relative to other planets, which immediately eliminated the assumption of radio interference of these space objects, or the time of day. Neither R. Wilson nor A. Penzias even guessed that they discovered the relic radiation of the universe.

Since none of them suggested such a thing, writing off the "background" on the hardware features (it's enough to remember that the used microwave antenna was the most sensitive at that time), it took almost a year until it became obvious that the recorded noise is part of the Universe itself. The intensity of the radio signal trapped turned out to be almost identical to the radiation intensity of an absolutely black body with a temperature of 3 Kelvin (1 Kelvin is -273 degrees Celsius). For comparison: zero according to Kelvin corresponds to the temperature of an object from fixed atoms. The radiation frequency is in the range from 500 MHz to 500 GHz.

At this time, two theoreticians from Princeton University - R. Dicke and D. Peebles, based on new models of the development of the universe, mathematically calculated that such radiation must exist and permeate the entire space. Needless to say, Penzias, who accidentally learned about the lectures on this topic, contacted the university and said that such a relic radiation was registered.

Based on the theory of the Big Bang, all matter and energy of the universe arose as a result of a colossal explosion. The first 300 thousand years after this space was a combination of elementary particles and radiations. Subsequently, because of the temperature increase, they began to fall, which made it possible for atoms to appear. The recorded relic radiation is an echo of those distant times. While the universe had boundaries, the density of the particles was so high that the radiation was "bound", since the mass of the particles reflected any kind of waves, not allowing them to propagate. And only after the beginning of the formation of atoms, space became "transparent" for the waves. It is believed that the relic radiation came about exactly this way. At the moment, each cubic centimeter of space contains about 500 original quanta, although their energy has decreased by almost 100 times.

Relic radiation in different parts of the universe has a different temperature. This is due to the location of the primary substance in the expanding universe. Where the density of the atoms of the future matter was higher, the fraction of radiation, and hence its temperature, is reduced. It was in these directions that later large objects (galaxies and their clusters) formed.

The study of relic radiation raises the veil of uncertainty over many processes occurring at the beginning of time.

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