Cystitis is a fairly common disease that doctors often deal with. By the way, according to statistical research, the fair sex is more susceptible to this disease. It is quite natural to ask what causes cystitis in women and what factors can cause the disease. And the patients are interested in the methods of diagnosis and treatment offered by modern medicine.
What is cystitis?
Before considering the question of why often there is a cystitis in women, it is necessary to understand what the disease is. Cystitis is a disease that is accompanied by an inflammatory process in the walls of the bladder.
It is believed that this is a kind of "female ailment". Naturally, both men are susceptible to this kind of disease, but 80% of patients with this diagnosis - namely, the fair sex at the age of 20 to 40 years. What causes cystitis in women and why are they so prone to the disease? Here the special features of female anatomy are important, because the anus and the vagina are located very close to the urethra, and the canal itself is wider and not as long as in men, because of which infection from the outside into the genito-urinary organs penetrates much more often.
Why is cystitis in women? The main causes of the disease
Many patients face this type of diagnosis. But before considering the methods of treatment, it is worth to learn what causes cystitis in women. In most cases, inflammation develops against the background of bacterial infection. Pathogenic microorganisms can enter the tissues of the reproductive system from the external environment, and can spread from other sources of inflammation.
In fact, there are a huge number of factors that can provoke an inflammatory process in the bladder:
- Previously transmitted infectious diseases with a chronic or acute course. It can be salpingitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, adnexitis, venereal diseases.
- Anatomical features of the genitourinary system of a woman, for example, stricture.
- Oncological ailments can also interfere with the normal release of urine, causing it to stagnate, which, accordingly, creates ideal conditions for the reproduction of bacteria.
- Severely hypothermic.
- Decreased immune activity, including during pregnancy.
- "Sedentary" work, since in this position, stagnation of urine and other liquids in the small pelvis is often observed.
- Presence of chronic foci of infection, including, for example, caries, chronic tonsillitis and rhinitis.
- Diabetes mellitus, which affects the work of the immune system.
- Constant stress and nervous overstrain (affect the state of immunity).
- Taking medications that depress the activity of the immune system.
- Non-compliance with the norms of intimate hygiene.
- Chronic lack of sleep, poor nutrition.
- Elderly age.
- Early onset of sexual activity, frequent change of partners.
- Injuries to the genital organs and damage to the lower back.
It is very important to know what causes cystitis in women. Treatment in fact in most cases depends on the original cause. That's why thorough diagnosis is so important.
Classification: what kinds of ailment exist?
In modern medicine, there are several schemes of classification of this disease. So what kind of cystitis occurs in women? Depending on the reason, the following are distinguished:
- Infectious cystitis caused by the activity of pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses.
- Noninfectious inflammation can be triggered by an allergic reaction, taking medications or getting into the body of toxins, by radiotherapy.
Depending on the type of infection, cystitis is divided into:
- Specific, which is caused by the penetration into the body of pathogens of chlamydia, gonorrhea, ureaplasmosis.
- Nonspecific cystitis - is caused by the activation of the conditionally pathogenic microflora of the female body, for example, E. coli, staphylococci, streptococci.
Depending on the course, the acute and chronic form of the disease is isolated. Cystitis can be primary or secondary (occurs as a complication of another disease).
The main symptoms of the disease
Now you know what causes cystitis in women. But, of course, it is worth familiarizing yourself with its main symptoms, because the sooner you notice the signs and see a doctor, the easier it will be for the therapy process.
Acute forms of the disease have a very characteristic clinical picture. One of the most common symptoms is the frequent urge to urinate (sometimes every 10-15 minutes). With this urine is allocated not so much, and the process of urination is accompanied by cuts and severe pain. Many women complain of pain in the suprapubic region - it can occur with urination or be present all the time.
Urine, as a rule, becomes turbid. Often it can be seen white flakes, impurities of pus or even blood. Some patients have pain in the lower back (this, as a rule, indicates the spread of the inflammatory process to the kidneys). Present and symptoms of the inflammatory process, in particular, fever, chills, weakness and fatigue, body aches.
Modern diagnostic methods
If you have symptoms, you should always contact a specialist. For the beginning the doctor collects the anamnesis. Patients are shown a gynecological examination, as well as a consultation about a therapist and urologist. Diagnosis includes several laboratory tests, in particular, a smear from the vagina to determine the microflora. Also, you need to pass blood and urine samples - so you can detect the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
Bacteriological sowing is mandatory to isolate the pathogen and test its sensitivity to antibacterial agents. Next, an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs. Sometimes doctors additionally prescribe cystoscopy (gives an opportunity to assess the condition of the bladder from the inside) and urography.
How is cystitis treated? Medication Therapy
In the process of diagnosis it is very important to determine what causes cystitis in women. Treatment directly depends on the cause of the inflammatory process and the general condition of the patient's body.
Therapy in this case must necessarily be comprehensive. If the cystitis is caused by the activity of bacterial microorganisms (which occurs in 80% of cases), then the patient is prescribed antibacterial agents. Preference is given to protected penicillins, as well as second- and third-generation cephalosporins - Monural, Azithromycin, and Ciprofloxacin.
The treatment scheme necessarily includes preparations-uroseptics, in particular, "Furagin", "Kanefron". Cystitis often uses non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, Ibuprofen, Ibufen, Nurofen, Paracetamol. Sometimes, to ease the patient's condition, "No-shpa" is used, which removes the spasm of smooth muscles. Since antibiotics adversely affect the beneficial microflora, therefore, probiotics are used for its protection, in particular, Bifiform, Linex, and Acipol.
Other treatments and helpful recommendations
In some cases, along with conservative therapy, women are also advised to have thermal procedures. It is recommended to abandon salt and spicy food, spices, chocolate and coffee for the duration of treatment. It is also important to drink plenty of fluids to maintain the water balance.
Physiotherapy, as a rule, is used in the treatment of chronic forms of cystitis. And in such cases, mud applications, UHF procedures, electrophoresis with the use of drugs, iontophoresis (antiseptics and nitrofurans are used) are effective.
Possible complications of the disease
Now you know about what causes cystitis in women (with blood). Treatment in most cases goes smoothly. Complications develop if the therapy was performed incorrectly or completely absent.
Infection can spread to other tissues, in particular, to the muscular layer of the bladder - this form of cystitis is much harder to treat. The inflammatory process often passes over to other organs of the genitourinary system, provoking the development of nephritis and other diseases. The most dangerous complications include bladder rupture with subsequent peritonitis - fortunately, this is very rare in modern medicine.
Why is cystitis in women after sex?
Quite often inflammation of the bladder develops in the fair sex after exactly after sexual intercourse. In people, this phenomenon even has its own name - "honeymoon syndrome". Often cystitis develops immediately after the first sexual experience, as there is a change in the habitual microflora of the vagina.
Why often there is a cystitis in women after sex? In fact, there can be many reasons. For example, not all partners adhere to the rules of hygiene before and after coition (this applies not only to women, but also to men). Infection of tissues can occur due to the refusal of condoms. Prolonged sexual acts, especially in the absence of a sufficient amount of lubricant, injure the mucous membrane of the vagina, which creates excellent conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and their migration through the genitourinary system. The risk factors include the use of those contraceptives that change the normal composition of vaginal discharge.
Is treatment at home appropriate?
Today, many patients are interested in the question of what causes cystitis in women and how to treat it at home. To date, we know a lot of folk recipes, but it is worth noting that you can use any means only after consulting a doctor. Inept use of home recipes can lead to a lot of unpleasant and dangerous consequences.
Quite often recommend thermal procedures that help relieve soreness. For example, you can put a heating pad on the bottom of the stomach or prepare a sedentary bath from a decoction of medicinal plants (sage, chamomile flowers, herbaceous grass). Useful is the tea from the bark of red mountain ash (100 g of bark need to boil in a liter of water).
Echinacea may be useful. By itself, this remedy can not cure cystitis, but the tincture of this plant stimulates the activity of the immune system, which speeds up the treatment process.
Prevention of cystitis: useful recommendations for women
Now you know about what causes cystitis in women and how to treat it. But, you will agree that it is much easier to prevent the development of the disease, than to then go through therapy and cope with the consequences. There is no specific preventive medicine, but women are advised to follow certain rules.
As is known, infections often become the cause of inflammation, which is why patients are advised to adhere to personal hygiene rules, to refuse wearing thong panties and any over-tight undergarment. It is very important to use condoms during sexual intercourse. It is necessary to avoid hypothermia and dress in the weather. And women are advised to follow the rules of hygiene and undergo scheduled medical examinations.