Waste sorting complex: equipment for sorting and processing of domestic waste

The concept of organization of non-waste production goes to a new level of practical implementation. Modern technologies allow to optimize production processes with the expectation of providing a full production cycle. That is, the generated solid household waste (MSW) is not disposed of, but is sent to a new production cycle. However, in most cases this concept is realized only partially. Wastes either do not find application in the producing plant, or they can not be properly sorted. It is for the solution of the second problem that in many industrial enterprises a waste sorting complex is integrated, with the help of which it is possible to obtain ready-made cleaned masses of paper, glass, metal or plastics.

Organization of waste sorting complexes

Household solid waste is not only a product of the average consumer's life. Such rubbish is left in the process of work and production enterprises, and commercial networks with commercial organizations. At the factory facilities, the waste sorting complex can be equipped without creating a transport organization for the transport of waste. In other cases, companies make out a special agreement, according to which, another processing enterprise will perform sorting operations.

Before shipping the accumulated waste, the enterprise performs weighing and batching. Next, the goods are moved directly to the sorting system. Then, there are several stages, as they pass through the selection of a recyclable material that is suitable for production purposes. The very same sorting of SHW is realized in several stages, each of which is performed with the help of special equipment.

Receiving and feeding conveyors

Acceptance of a batch with waste is carried out with the help of special bins, which can directly transfer the mass to the sorting line. At the same time, flow schemes are also common, which are directly implemented by garbage trucks. As a rule, the basis of such complexes is industrial concreted areas, which are under the awning of a waste collection station. Large-scale household waste is selected and reloaded with special equipment. To do this, use bulldozers and excavators with appropriate attachments.

Already at the stage of selection of certain items of value, the sorting process begins. As a rule, the remaining mass is sent to the reversed conveyor and then fed into an open container of the multilift type . Depending on the scheme of operation of a particular plant, processing of recyclable materials can be carried out at adjacent capacities with the sorting complex. This results in a non-stop selection and processing process, which saves a large part of the costs of garbage transportation.

Sorting conveyor

In most cases, sorting is performed with masses in which the elements that are homogeneous in size are presented. For the sorting of such wastes, the work of conveyors serviced by operators is organized. Selecting suitable fractions, workers throw them into the appropriate bunker. Typically, the conveyor has several hatches designed to relieve a certain type of debris - for example, for plastics, waste paper, metal, glass, etc. From the point of view of a technical organization, this sorting of solid waste is the simplest, since the main emphasis is on manual labor. Automation only ensures the movement of the tape, on which before it comes mass with waste. In this case, there are single- and double-sided lines, that is, selection can be carried out from one or both sides.

Automatic press

The pressing equipment is not directly related to the basic sorting function. Such machines usually work with a ready recyclable material, which can be used for further production purposes. There are also garbage-processing complexes on which there is no press. Most often, these are mini-plants, where once the sorts are sent, they are sent to the production processing. The press itself is a hydraulic machine, which by means of pressure acts to compress the incoming mass.

Pressing as such is necessary for the formation of compact bales for transportation and logistical handling of bales. At the same time, it is desirable that the mass with the waste coming into the press machines should have exactly the same characteristics. In this case, further recycling of secondary raw materials on machines of thermal or mechanical impact will be facilitated.

Storage bunker

Tanks designed to collect sorted wastes are of two types. These are bins working with the pressed mass, and receiving tanks, which are directly connected to the hatches of the discharge of the selected materials. Accordingly, such bunkers are also differentiated according to the links with further technological processes. Thus, a finished bale stack can interact with a recycling production line, freight transport, or a receiver for permanent storage. This bundle is determined by the tasks that the specific waste sorting plant and its equipment solve. Some enterprises cooperate with landfills for the storage of hazardous waste, while others operate at their own capacities to process recyclables.


At the stage of forming briquettes ready for transportation or storage, special means are used to ensure compactness and reliability of the blocks. The most complex processes involve the use of liquid formulations that promote increased adhesion between compacted waste. Before or during the pressing process, plasticizers and viscous substances are added directly to the niche with the pressing platform. In addition, the waste sorting complex can be equipped with binding lines, on which the winding is carried out with a polyester film or a strap-tape. This measure also aims to prevent delamination and spillage of briquettes with pressed waste.

Modern possibilities of sorting complexes

Technological development of modern complexes for MSW sorting is oriented to improving the quality of selection. In particular, the range of materials that are not recycled or sent to landfill sites is constantly expanding, but used as recyclables. These include rubber products, some types of artificial fabrics, polymers with unmarked plastics, etc. The technical performance of the mini plants is also being improved. For example, the mobile waste sorting complex allows to combine the functions of transportation and processing, which speeds up and makes logistics processes cheaper. As before, waste recycling organizations pay special attention to environmental issues. So, on some complexes there is an opportunity of recycling of a dangerous waste which can not be buried even on special ranges.

How much does the waste sorting complex cost?

High-tech and productive complex can cost about 2-3 million rubles. The integrated mini-plants for small enterprises are estimated at 1.5-2 million. But much depends on the composition of the specific line and additional equipment. For example, one press machine can cost 350-400 thousand. However, many enterprises do without it. But in any case, the organization of its own complex of individual components will be cheaper. Such sorting of waste will be more effective and productive, but it will also be necessary to prepare for additional items of costs for line design and installation work. Small prefabricated complexes are just advantageous in that they require minimal effort during installation, take up less space and are less demanding in maintenance.

How to choose the right complex?

First of all, the amount of generated waste that will be delivered to the sorting line is estimated. Depending on this indicator, the capacity of the equipment is determined. At the same time, a margin of 20% must be left. Also, the number of fractions is calculated in advance, according to which household waste will be sorted on the conveyor. The number of hatches and hoppers of the final reception directly depends on this number - and, again, it will not be superfluous to provide a few additional sections. It should also take into account the degree of automation of functional processes. Although most of the complexes involve operators, the manufacturers of such equipment are actively implementing at separate stages of the automated control system - accordingly, they also increase the cost of mini-plants of this type.


The selection of suitable fractions for further use has become much more complicated in recent years. If before the sorting tasks were reduced to breakdown of waste into 2-3 groups, depending on the level of danger or the value of materials for subsequent processing, then modern enterprises set goals for point classification. Suffice it to say that sorting waste on a high-tech line makes it possible to form groups in the areas of further use of secondary raw materials in factories and plants from different spheres. Thus, waste paper is sent to furniture production, metal briquettes are supplied to machine-tool plants, and polymer waste is in demand today even in pure form on construction sites. At the same time, the designs of the complexes that directly provide sorting functions at enterprises are being improved.

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