Types of floors, structures, materials. Types of self-leveling floors

Today, no one needs to explain that the floor in the house contributes to the creation of comfort and comfort. No element of the interior of your apartment needs more thorough care. Therefore, before choosing a floor covering, study all possible types of floors.

Preparing the floor base

Before deciding which floor covering you need, you should take care of the foundation. It should be smooth, without any differences in height, protrusions and cracks. For this, the floor screed is produced by one of the following methods.

To date, the most common:

  • Dry floor screed. It is used for leveling the surface with the presence of serious defects. Too thick layer of such a screed does not always allow it to be used in apartments. This can be considered its only drawback. The advantages of this method include ease of coverage, ease of installation, high quality. On a dry screed, you can immediately lay the top layer. The technology of laying is very simple: a dry mixture is poured onto the base of concrete or polystyrene is covered, then plaster boards are laid on the floor.
  • Semi-dry screed. This is the pouring of the floor with a mixture of cement, water and sand. Alignment is carried out with the help of special measuring instruments. This screed dries for five days.

We choose floors. Types: construction, technology, materials

Modern designers and manufacturers of finishing and building materials can offer customers a variety of design options for floors. They differ in the technology of manufacturing and installation, the material used and, of course, the price. Today we will introduce the most common types of floors to you so that you can make the right choice.

Self-leveling floors

In construction, the kind of screed and finish coat are called. When working, mixtures are used to level the surface, which is poured onto a layer of expanded polystyrene. Ties of this type have earned the approval of specialists for a small thickness of coating, high strength and durability. After the substrate dries completely, you can proceed with the selection of the main floor covering.

At this point, many people have the question: "Which is better to choose floors?" The types, requirements, designs for all options are different. What kind of coating will last a long time, will be durable and preserve the original look at a reasonable price?

There is no unequivocal answer to these questions. The variety of floor coverings gives the space of your imagination and at the same time complicates the choice. But back to the flooring as the finish coat.

This is a relatively new invention. They are often called "3D-floors". Such coatings allow you to create real works of art in a separate apartment (house). They are very effective.

Kinds of liquid floors amaze imagination. The cost of such coatings can not be called low. The technology of filling the floor is very similar to the production of a liquid screed.

When creating such a coating, you should carefully level the base, polish it, clean it well and primer it. Then apply the base layer. When it dries, you can draw.

How to apply the floor?

In this case, the choice depends on the fantasy and preferences of the owner. Use any textures, colors, small decorative elements (shells, pebbles, artificial plants, etc.) - all this will add originality to your sexes.

In conclusion, the finishing coat is applied. The thicker the polymer that is applied to the pattern, the larger the image will appear. There are other types of self-leveling floors. In addition to a transparent coating, you can consider other options - matte fillings of different colors, ornaments, large drawings. This type of flooring has high strength and is a decoration of the room.

Wooden floors

Many owners, considering the types of wooden floors, increasingly prefer a massive board. It is considered to be an alternative to the covering from the parquet. Massive board is great for large rooms.

This material is environmentally friendly, with proper care it will serve for decades. In addition, it is distinguished by the simplicity of laying, which is due to the dimensions of the boards - their width is 10-20 cm, and the length reaches three meters.

The massive board is slightly thicker than the parquet board, so this material is considered to be more wear-resistant, durable and durable. Using modern technology, manufacturers create a board of different colors, regardless of the type of tree. There are many modern paint and varnish compositions that not only protect the material, but also give the board an attractive appearance.


Only high-quality solid wood is used for the production of the floorboard. Most often this material is made from maple, oak, walnut, birch, cherry, ash. In addition, there is a board made of exotic woods - beech, mergau, bamboo, wenge and so on.

Laying a massive board requires preparation of the base. It can not be placed on concrete. Usually, wooden lags (rectangular bars) are used for this. Also, the coating can be laid on a plywood base. The surface of it should be perfectly even. We must not forget about the moisture-proof layer. It is laid on logs or on a plywood base. Penka can be replaced with mastics, primers and other special mixtures.

In apartments located on the lower floors, the floor is better to be insulated by laying a heat-resistant material between the layers of the coating. Specialists recommend to sustain boards before laying in the room for at least two days.


Choosing the floors, types and requirements for which are significantly different, you need to consider in which room you want to stack them. Surely you will not place ceramic tiles in the living room, and parquet in the bathroom. Each room has its own requirements.

Classic parquet is a strong, durable, environmentally friendly floor covering. It always has an impeccable look. Today the parquet floor is decorated not only in the form of a "Christmas tree" or a traditional rectangular mosaic. Modern technologies have introduced a variety of colors, shapes, textures and shades into the parquet world. Now from the tree you can lay out intricate drawings.

Parquet is a small wooden plaque up to 20 mm thick, about 10 cm wide. Parquet is made from high-quality solid wood. Most often use a nut, oak, birch, ash, maple, larch. Demand today for a cover of beech, sandalwood, cypress, palm.

Parquet, relating to the wooden floors, in turn, can be divided into several types - piece, parquet board, modular and artistic. At the latter I would like to dwell in more detail.

Art parquet made by a skilled craftsman is a real work of art. Incredible ornaments, very complex drawings, stunning patterns - all this is available thanks to modern equipment and the latest production technologies. Artistic parquet is piece material. It is laid down with an intricate pattern.

Modular parquet can combine different colors, grades and textures of a tree. The process of laying such a coating is very laborious, requires a long time and high qualification of the master.

The disadvantage of parquet, as well as other wooden coating, can be called the complexity of care. It should be followed very closely, protected from moisture, regularly treated with special compounds. And styling is a very complex process, requiring the skill of professionals.

Floor tiles

There are floors, types and designs of which are well known to our readers. First of all it concerns floor ceramic granite slabs, which are made of durable and durable material. However, you hardly want to have such a floor in your bedroom. This option is more suitable for rooms with high humidity - an entrance hall, kitchen or bathroom.

Before laying the tiles, it is necessary to properly level the floor and clean it from dust. All contact points must be degreased. The material is laid on a special glue. It is necessary to ensure that the gaps between the tiles are uniform.

"Living tiles"

This is a completely new floor covering. In order not to go into the subtleties of production technology, we can say that it is a multi-layer tile, the pattern of which changes when you press it.

Undoubtedly, this is an original and quite impressive cover. It requires special conditions for installation and operation. Such a tile is installed on an absolutely flat horizontal surface. The smallest defects can cause its deformation, as a result of which it will lose its "magic" properties - the gel inside it will simply flow out.

Kinds of floors from roll materials

Linoleum is perhaps the most affordable way to update the floor. On the domestic market of building and finishing materials today are presented different types of this material:

  • Natural, made from natural raw materials (linseed oil, coniferous resin, jute fiber, wood flour).
  • PVC-linoleum is made of synthetic materials. It is very durable, wear-resistant, has good flexibility. PVC-linoleum is single-layered and multilayered. Presented in trading a huge selection of colors and drawings.
  • Rubber linoleum (Relin) is a two-layer coating. The lower layer is used rubber, and the upper layer consists of a mixture of rubber, pigments and fillers.
  • Alkyd linoleum contains alkyd resins and a base in the form of a fabric. It has strong thermal insulation properties.

Kinds of floors from linoleum in living rooms differ from coverings in office buildings, shops, polyclinics, etc.

For floors in apartments (houses), as a rule, artificial PVC linoleum is used. From it you can make different types of coverage. Modern technologies make it possible to produce this material of the highest quality. In addition, it perfectly imitates parquet, wood tile and so on.

Carpet cover

The types of floors, photos and descriptions we have posted in this article will not be complete if we do not tell about the favorite material of many consumers - carpet. This soft floor covering consists of several layers. The first is the pile, underneath is the base, then comes the fixing layer, followed by a rubber or latex gasket.

For the production of pile carpet is used wool, polyamide or polypropylene. Probably, therefore for many a carpet cover is a favorite kind of sex. At home, you want to relax and at least occasionally walk around without shoes. And the most pleasant thing to do is a soft and fluffy carpet.

It can be different in the way it is made. Woven carpet is executed almost the same way as a normal carpet. This is the most expensive kind of this coating. More common (mainly due to its affordable price) is artificial carpet. Its quality depends on how closely fit the villi to each other. The higher the density, the less dust and small fumes fall into the base. Dense pile less abrasion and wrinkles, and therefore longer retains a magnificent appearance.

Caring for the carpet is quite simple. Latex or rubber based coating allows wet cleaning. But in this case it is necessary to make sure that the pile completely dries. Carpet on a jute basis requires dry cleaning.

Warm floor

In conclusion, I would like to say about the "warm floor" system. This is a great way to make your home cozy. Especially this option is relevant for private houses and apartments on the lower floors. The essence of this method is simple: a special construction consisting of electrical wires is laid under the top layer of the floor covering. Some systems use water or gas pipes. Only regulators and temperature sensors remain on the surface. "Warm floor" can be combined with any coating.

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