Why do you need to know your glucose level? It is a substance that plays a huge biological role in the human body. About that, what its norm in blood, we will tell in the presented article.
For sure, each of you at least once in your life donated blood to detect glucose. This is quite a standard procedure during the medical examination. It should be noted that the word "glucose" originated from the drevengrexual λυκύς, which literally translates as "sweet."
This substance is the main and most universal source of energy to ensure all metabolic processes occurring in the human body. It is found in the juices of a huge number of berries and fruits, including in the grape.
So what is glucose? The formula for this hexatomic sugar is as follows: C6H12O6. It should also be noted that the glucose unit is part of some disaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose) and polysaccharides (glycogen, starch and cellulose).
Physical properties of glucose
It is a crystalline colorless substance that has a sweetish taste. It easily dissolves in water, as well as in an ammoniacal solution of copper hydroxide, concentrated - zinc chloride and sulfuric acid.
The biological role of sugar
It is extremely important to know your glucose level. After all, in the human body, it is the main source of energy. As is known, the sugar content in blood in young children and adults is the same. This is due to the fact that it is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. If its level is overstated or, conversely, lowered, then this indicates a failure in the body.
What is the norm of sugar?
Glucose should normally be in the range of 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l. But the physiological processes that continuously occur in the body during digestion can easily influence its level. This is due to the fact that after ingestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract immediately absorbed simple carbohydrates into the blood. At the same time, complex enzymes are split into simple ones, and then they also enter the bloodstream. As a result of such chemical actions, the level of sugar can significantly increase. Its excess amount goes to the liver. In breaks between meals, when the glucose content decreases significantly, it is quickly extracted from its unique "storehouse" to support the required minimum level.
This phenomenon can be observed due to insufficient intake of simple carbohydrates into the body (for example, during diets). Also, the sugar level drops noticeably immediately after training or heavy physical work. Deficiency of this substance in the blood is not uncommon for nursing mothers, as they "share" it with their child.
It should be specially noted that if the sugar remains long enough for a long time, it can lead to a hypoglycemic condition. By the way, such a deviation is observed not only after heavy physical exertion or with a shortage of carbohydrates, but also in cases of abnormalities of the pancreas, liver or kidneys.
Increased sugar levels
Every day people with a disease like diabetes mellitus are becoming more and more. This is due not only to the fact that people began to consume a huge amount of simple carbohydrates, but also because most of them stopped to lead a mobile lifestyle.
The main sign of diabetes is hyperglycemia. This term is used to make a diagnosis only when glucose is elevated in the blood of a person. The analysis for detecting this deviation is carried out by a standard laboratory blood test, which is taken from a finger or vein.
The main problem in the diagnosis of diabetes is that this deviation can take a long time without any symptoms. That's why people who are at risk, two or three times a year take blood to identify increased sugar.
Let's consider together who is predisposed to such a disease:
- People suffering from obesity;
- People with vascular disorders.
The reasons that can contribute to the development of this disease:
- Hereditary predisposition (if one of the relatives has this pathology);
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Viral infections, etc.
Main signs of increased glucose
To understand what level of sugar you have, you should definitely donate blood for analysis. However, there are some signs that you can understand that your body suffers from an excess of this substance:
- Increased fatigue;
- Weight loss with good appetite;
- Constant thirst;
- Copious and frequent urination;
- Dry mouth;
In addition, high blood glucose is characterized by the following symptoms: night urination, pustular lesions on the skin, hard healing sores and furuncles, long-healing wounds and scratches, general lowering of immunity, decreased efficiency, frequent colds, decreased vision, itch in the groin And others.
Signs of low blood glucose
Symptoms of this pathological condition can be:
- The appearance of tremors in the upper and lower limbs;
- Decreased visual acuity;
- Low blood pressure;
- Increased sweating ;
- Delayed reaction;
- Cold extremities, as well as ears and nose;
- Decreased efficiency due to energy loss;