The activity of the heart is possible thanks to the sinus node regulating the frequency of its contractions. In addition, it is able to generate rhythmically electric impulses that propagate through the myocardium of the ventricles and atria.
A healthy person is characterized by wide limits of change in the pulse frequency. Everything depends on the requirements of the body. For example, in a state of rest (in particular, at night) with a relatively small need for organ blood flow, the frequency of pulses from the sinus node and, accordingly, of the heart contractions decreases to sixty-fifty (sometimes up to forty-five) times per minute. In this day, with emotional and physical loads, the heart rate increases. In the case of physical overvoltage, the frequency of contractions can reach 130, sometimes 150-160 beats per minute.
With the development of pathological situations, a sinus node is disturbed. In different areas of the myocardium, new foci of electrical activation, competing with it and, in some cases, suppressing its functions, can form. It is possible to block the wave propagation itself. All these unpleasant phenomena are accompanied by irregularities in the heart - arrhythmia. This condition is characterized by abnormalities in frequency, strength and regularity of contractions. Heart rhythm disturbances can occur both with a favorable prognosis, and with a danger to life.
All arrhythmias are characterized by similar symptoms. The main signs are the sensations of cardiac fading, uneven pulse, palpitations. In some cases, there may be weakness, fainting, dizziness.
Interruptions in the work of the heart can occur against the background of cardiovascular pathologies, disorders of the nervous system, endocrine dis- eases, physical activity, the intake of individual dosage forms, severe stress, depressions, hypothermia, excessive alcohol consumption, energy drinks, and smoking. All these factors are the most frequent causes of arrhythmia.
Interruptions in the heart can be of different types.
Extrasystolia is characterized by extraordinary, nonrhythmic contractions with respect to the normal frequency.
Tachycardia is a state of rapid heartbeat.
Bradycardia is a slow rhythm.
Atrial fibrillation refers to an inferior irregular heartbeat.
It should be noted that throughout the day for every healthy person there are irregularities in the heart in the form of several dozens of supraventricular and several units of ventricular extrasystoles. Such conditions do not threaten health and do not provoke transformation into more serious rhythm disorders. Most people do not feel such extrasystoles. They are detected by chance during routine ECG.
However, there are particularly sensitive people who experience heart discomfort, being perfectly healthy. Many patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia feel that the organ "stops", "freezes", and then "starts again". In most cases, "sensations" fail them.
Of course, violations in cardiac work in patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia may occur. In this case, the malfunctions of the functional nature of the phenomenon are normal and natural.
Selection of tactics of treatment is in many cases a difficult task. This is due to the fact that all antiarrhythmic drugs have a sufficiently large number of adverse events, in particular, the ability to provoke a new, in many cases, more severe, arrhythmia. Nevertheless, when there are sharp failures, they are trying to stop. This is possible with the use of both medicines and non-pharmacological methods of exposure. However, in any case, self-medication is unacceptable. Consultation of a specialist is necessary.